Digital Circuit Implementation. Wafers and Chips  Integrated circuit (IC) chips are manufactured on silicon wafers  Transistors are placed on the wafers.

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Digital Circuit Implementation

Wafers and Chips  Integrated circuit (IC) chips are manufactured on silicon wafers  Transistors are placed on the wafers through a chemical etching process  Each wafer is cut into chips (dies) which are then packaged individually

IC Cost  Cost of an integrated circuit (IC) can be modeled with three equations Cost per die = (cost per wafer) / ((dies per wafer) * yield)  Yield = fraction of dies on a wafer that pass testing Dies per wafer  (wafer area) / (die area)  Ignores border of the circular wafer that cannot accommodate a rectangular die Yield = 1 / (1 + (defects per area * die area) / 2) 2  Based on many years of empirical observations

IC Cost Example  8” (200 mm) diameter wafer  Die area = 91 mm 2  Dies per wafer = 196 at 100% yield  Cost per wafer = \$1000  Defect density = 1 per cm 2  Yield = 1 / (1 + (1 *.91) / 2) 2 = 0.47  Cost per die = \$1000 / (196 *.47) = \$10.80

Basic IC Chip Types  Logic circuits may be implemented … on single chip, or using many chips interconnected on a printed circuit board (PCB)  Main types of IC chips are: Standard chips Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) Custom chips

Standard Chips  Small number of transistors (< 100)  Simple and fixed functions  Logic designer must decide how to interconnect multiple chips for desired function  Agreed upon / standard functionality  Popular in the 1980s – too large in physical size for much industry use now (good for teaching though!)

7400 Series TTL Logic Chips  The 7400 NAND Chip: pin layout The equivalent logic layout

7400 Series Implementation  Implementing f = x 1 x 2 + x 2 'x 3 using 7400 series ICs

Why TTL is Only Used For Small Systems

PLDs  Programmable chips – functionality determined by the designer Can even be reprogrammed  Can handle more complex functions than standard chips (approx 100 million transistors per PLD) FPGA: Field Programmable Gate Arrays CPLD: Complex Programmable Logic Devices PAL: Programmable Array Logic PLA: Programmable Logic Arrays  These are used very extensively in industry

Custom Chips  Programmable chips have two major drawbacks: Consume space due to large number of switches for programmability Slow  speed also limited by excessive switches (resistance/capacitance)  Custom chips Logic designer builds a custom chip Manufactured by a special fabrication facility (\$\$\$!)  ASIC: Application Specific Integrated Circuit Fast, small Expensive! And takes time to build and manufacture

Digital Design Process

Design Loop for Digital Hardware  The basic design loop:  Initial design takes creativity and experience  CAD tools are used for simulation and to work out details Design concept Successful design Initial design Simulation Design correct? Redesign No Yes

The Entire Development Process  Design is only one part  Verification and testing are also important – this is called design verification Errors may not be uncovered until after the prototype is made Errors may not be uncovered until after “release”!  Pentium bug Required product Design specifications Initial design Simulation Design correct? Redesign Implement prototype Testing Meets specs? Finished product Minor errors? Make corrections No Yes No Yes No

Simulation Phase  Functional simulation Test the circuit to determine if it correctly performs all the functions that are required  Timing simulation Test the circuit to determine if it meets the timing requirements Correct functionality does not necessarily lead to fast speed  The physical design / layout will affect the timing Inherent gate delays Physical wiring leaves metal traces that have resistance

CAD Tools  There are a number of commonly used industry standard CAD tools CAD = Computer Aided Design Altera, Cadence, Mentor Graphics, Synopsys, Synplicity, Xilinx  We have Altera products  Tools are used for multiple purposes Synthesis, timing simulation, functional simulation, layout Can even download the design onto a PCB

CAD Tools vs Theory  Why learn any theory if the CAD tools do the work? Initial design must be provided by the designer  Quality of final design is a function of the quality of the initial design Tools implement the theory  Designers need to understand how the tools work in order to be effective in using them Tools have many options  Knowing which to select requires knowing what they do and how they do it

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