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Chapter 10 Islam Sufism Pre-Islamic Arabia The spread of Islam

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1 Chapter 10 Islam Sufism Pre-Islamic Arabia The spread of Islam
The Prophet Muhammad The Qur’an The central teachings The Five Pillars Sunni and Shi’a Sufism The spread of Islam Relationships with the West Muslim resurgence

2 Key terms Allah madrasa caliph muezzin fatwa Shahadah hajj Shari’ah
Hadith hijab hijrah Imam Islam Islamist jihad madrasa muezzin Shahadah Shari’ah Shi’a Sufism Sunnah Sunni sura ummah

3 Islamic Terms Islam – submission to Allah (god)
Muslim – one who submits to the will of Allah Hajj/Hegira – pilgrimage to Mecca Imam – religious leader (Shia) Qiyama – Day of Judgment Jannah – heaven Minaret – prayer tower next to mosque Mosque – Muslim place of worship Mahdi – Islamic redeemer who will return with Jesus on Judgment Day to save the world

4 Definitions PBUH- Stands for “Peace Be Upon Him” and is commonly said or written after using the Prophet Muhammad’s name by Muslims. Qu’ran- the Holy book of the Islamic faith, the word means “recitation”. Many believers, as well as Muhammad himself, were illiterate and learned all teachings orally. Surah- a chapter within the Qu’ran Ummah- the religious community Ahl al-Kitab- “People of the Book”, refers to Jews and Christians or ‘people of an earlier revelation’

5 “Say: ‘Oh People of the book!
Come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah; That we associate no partners with Him; That we erect not from among ourselves Lords and patrons other than Allah.’” Qur’an 3:64

6 “When you live in poverty and isolation, one of the things you hold on to is religion for your sanity, to keep you going. When you hear people crying in suffering and pain, instead of asking, ‘Where is God?’, this is God crying out to you, ‘Why are you allowing this?’” Farid Esack, South Africa

7 Islamic Era - Chronology
570 CE – Birth of Muhammed, founder of Islam 610 CE – Muhammed’s vision that creates Islam (Archangel Gabriel comes to him) 622 CE – Muhammed leaves Mecca for Medina and begins gaining converts – this event is known as the Hegira (Hajj) 630 CE – Muhammed and followers return to Mecca and overtake the city – the Kabah is set up as major Islamic shrine 632 CE – Death of Muhammed, his father-in-law Abu – Bakhr takes over and creates the title caliph; begins the creation of an empire of Islam by conquering neighboring lands. At Abu-Bakhr’s death Umar takes over as caliph. Muslims divide into many subgroups.

8 Islamic Era - Chronology
718 CE – Spain is under Muslim control 734 CE – Battle of Poitiers – Muslim spread is stopped by Charles Martel of France 762 – 766 CE – The Abbasid Dynasty takes over from Umayyads (except in Spain) and move capital from Damascus to Baghdad 788 – 879 CE – Several countries break free from caliphate and set up individual kingdoms and dynasties 879 CE – Seljuk Turks begin conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia 900 CE – Fatimids take over in Egypt and conquer all of North Africa

9 Islamic Era - Chronology
945 CE – Abbasid power falls to the Shiites 969 – 1171 CE – Fatimid Dynasty recreates a smaller version of the Caliphate in Egypt 1037 – 1194 CE – Seljuk Turk Dynasty 1077 CE – Seljuk Turks conquer most of Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon 1099 CE – Crusades begun against Muslims in the Holy Land by Pope Urban 1187 CE – Saladin ends Western control of Holy Land (Outremer) after Battle of Hattin

10 Islamic Era - Chronology
1248 CE – Muslims lose control of most of Spain except area around Granada 1251 CE – Malmuk Dynasty takes over caliphate in Egypt 1258 CE – Abbasid Dynasty is completely wiped out by Mongol invasion 1327 CE – Seljuk Empire collapses; Arab world splits into several kingdoms 1453 CE – Ottoman Empire defeats the Byzantine Empire; move capital to Istanbul (Constantinople) 1492 CE – Muslims completely expelled from Spain

11 FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.

12 Islamic World

13 Spread of Islam. Greece, Spain are no longer ruled by Muslims.

14 The Prophet Muhammad Muslims consider Muhammad to be the final prophet in a chain of prophets who brought monotheism While God is the focus and sole authority within Islam, Muhammad’s life story is important as a model of Qur’anic teachings Muhammad’s life became a model for Muslims to follow; those who knew him commented on his nobility, humility, and kindness The revelations of the Qur’an speak not of a contemplative life of withdrawal, but of the need for Muslims to fight oppression and corruption and establish moral order in the world

15 Islam-The Big Picture The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)receives the revelation of the Qu’ran in 610 612 Prophet Muhammad (phuh)begins preaching The Qu’ran holds 114 chapters or “surahs”. It took 21 years for the Qu’ran to be fully revealed. The Qu’ran’s surahs are not ordered chronologically but according to length- longest to shortest.

16 According to tradition, following the deaths of his uncle and his first wife, who had protected Muhammad from persecution, Gabriel carried Muhammad on a horse with a human head from Mecca to Jerusalem, where he ascended to heaven from the rock, now covered by the Dome of the Rock, on which Jews believed Abraham was to sacrifice Isaac.

17 Islamic Art – Dome of the Rock

18 Traditionally, Muhammad first received the Qur’an in this cave.

19 The Qur’an The Qur’an [“Koran” is an alternate, less preferable spelling] contains the revelations Muhammad received, which affirm God’s unity and also direct life in human society

20 Because most Muslim artists were forbidden from depicting animals and humans, they concentrated on decorative designs and writing, especially in the Qur’an.

21 The Central Teachings The oneness of God and of humanity
Prophethood and the compass of Islam Human relationship to the divine The unseen life The Last Judgment

22 5 Pillars of Faith – (Sunni)
1) Shahadah – profession of faith – “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger” 2) Salah – ritual prayer done 5x a day at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and evening 3) Zakat – giving to the poor – everyone must give something depending on what they earn 4) Sawm – fasting during month of Ramadan – refraining from food, drink and sexual intercourse from dawn to dusk each day of the month – also supposed to get along with others better and get closer to Allah during this time (there are exceptions for health, etc.) 5) Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca – every able bodied Muslim must make the pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime – must walk around the Kaaba 7 times, touch the stone and symbolically throw rocks at the devil In Shiite Islam there are the additional pillars of Jihad (personal struggle against Islam’s enemies) and Khum (giving a tithe to the Imam)

23 Additional Component Jihad- Important concept in both Sunni and Shia Islam, signifies a struggle. Two types, the struggle within (which the Qu’ran deals mainly with), and the struggle (wars of religion) without. Shia consider the inner Jihad an essential element of the faith. Jihad is often misused in terminology and in its purpose. Terrorist group Al-Qaida is a Sunni organization.

24 Traditionally, Abraham and Ishmael built the Ka’bah where God created Adam.
A meteorite, believed given by Gabriel, is set in a corner. Today, walking around the Ka’bah is part of the hajj, one of the Five Pillars of Islam.

25 Kaaba

26 Malwiya minaret and Great Mosque
Slide concept by Anthony F. D'Ascoli FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Malwiya minaret and Great Mosque

27 Sunnis and Shi’as The issue of Muhammad’s successor led to a split between two factions: the Sunni (roughly eighty percent of Muslims) and the Shi’a

28 Sunnis Sunnis or “people of the Sunnah” emphasize the authority of the Qur’an and the Hadith and Sunnah Their understanding is that Muhammad did not appoint a successor but rather left this up to the Muslim community or ummah For Sunnis, the caliph is the leader of worship and the administrator of the sacred law of Islam, Shari’ah

29 Islamic Law There are different systems of Islamic law, and varying interpretations of those laws. In general, shari’ah is based on the Qur’an and the sunnah; its dictates are applicable to all areas of life from diet to inheritance to social justice. It is frequently noted that shari’ah gave women rights they did not have in the west until the nineteenth century (e.g. the right to inherit, to divorce).

30 A famous law from the Quran
5.38. As to the thief, Male or female, cut off his or her hands: a punishment by way of example, from Allah, for their crime: and Allah is Exalted in power.

31 On Women Sura 4:3 says: “ And if you be apprehensive that you will not be able to do justice to the orphans, you may marry two or three or four women whom you choose. But if you apprehend that you might not be able to do justice to them, then marry only one wife, or marry those who have fallen in your possession.” Sura 4:34 says “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband's) absence what Allah would have them guard. As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (Next), refuse to share their beds, (And last) beat them (lightly); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them Means (of annoyance): For Allah is Most High, great (above you all)“

32 On suicide and killing “And do not kill yourselves, God is merciful with you. And whosoever does that (kills self) with aggression and inequity, we will make them suffer in Hell fire, and this is easy for God to do” (29-30, 4). “He who kills a person without (the latter) having killed another person, it is as if he has killed all of humanity, and he who makes one person survive, it is as if he has caused all humanity to survive” (32,5) "The person who participates in (Holy battles) in Allah's cause and nothing compels him to do so except belief in Allah and His Apostles, will be recompensed by Allah either with a reward, or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to Paradise (if he is killed in the battle as a martyr). Had I not found it difficult for my followers, then I would not remain behind any sariya going for Jihad and I would have loved to be martyred in Allah's cause and then made alive, and then martyred and then made alive, and then again martyred in His cause." Whoever purposely throws himself from a mountain and kills himself, will be in the (Hell) Fire falling down into it and abiding therein perpetually forever; and whoever drinks poison and kills himself with it, he will be carrying his poison in his hand and drinking it in the (Hell) Fire wherein he will abide eternally forever; and whoever kills himself with an iron weapon, will be carrying that weapon in his hand and stabbing his abdomen with it in the (Hell) Fire wherein he will abide eternally forever."

33 The Quran on Christians and Jews
5.51. O ye who believe! take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: They are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them. Verily Allah guideth not a people unjust. 5.57. O ye who believe! take not for friends and protectors those who take your religion for a mockery or sport,- whether among those who received the Scripture before you, or among those who reject Faith; but fear ye Allah, if ye have faith (indeed). 5.60. Say: "Shall I point out to you something much worse than this, (as judged) by the treatment it received from Allah. those [people of the Book (Jews and Christians)] who incurred the curse of Allah and His wrath, those of whom some He transformed into apes and swine, those who worshipped evil;- these are (many times) worse in rank, and far more astray from the even path!" 5.64. The Jews say: "(Allah)'s hand is tied up." Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for the (blasphemy) they utter. Nay, both His hands are widely outstretched: He giveth and spendeth (of His bounty) as He pleaseth. But the revelation that cometh to thee from Allah increaseth in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy. Amongst them we have placed enmity and hatred till the Day of Judgment. Every time they kindle the fire of war, Allah doth extinguish it; but they (ever) strive to do mischief on earth. And Allah loveth not those who do mischief. 5.69. Those who believe (in the Qur'an), those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Sabians and the Christians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness,- on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 5.72. They do blaspheme who say: "(Allah) is Christ the son of Mary." But said Christ: "O Children of Israel! worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord." Whoever joins other gods with Allah,- Allah will forbid him the garden, and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help. 5.73. They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy), verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them. 5.74. Why turn they not to Allah, and seek His forgiveness? For Allah is Oft- forgiving, Most Merciful. 5.75. Christ the son of Mary was no more than an apostle; many were the apostles that passed away before him. His mother was a woman of truth. They had both to eat their (daily) food. See how Allah doth make His signs clear to them; yet see in what ways they are deluded away from the truth! 5.82. Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, "We are Christians": because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.

34 The Virgin Myth The Quran never mentions 72 virgins (it is in a Hadith (Islamic traditional writings) The virgins mentioned in the Quran are for all Muslims, not just martyrs "Dark-eyed virgins sheltered in their tents (which of your Lord's blessings would you deny?) whom neither man nor jinnee will have touched before." "The Prophet Muhammad was heard saying: 'The smallest reward for the people of paradise is an abode where there are 80,000 servants and 72 wives, over which stands a dome decorated with pearls, aquamarine, and ruby, as wide as the distance from Al-Jabiyyah [a Damascus suburb] to Sana'a [Yemen]'." The word “hur” or Al-hur” can be translated in many ways, as hand maidens (female servants); dark eyed virgins; voluptuous women or “white pure raisins” and according to scholars, the use in the Hadith was meant for raisins….

35 Shi’a Shi’a Muslims are:
devoted to the memory of Muhammad and his close relatives revere a succession of seven or twelve Imams (leaders, guides) rather than the Sunni caliphs

36 Islam after Muhammad’s Death
The death of Muhammad in 632 presented a challenge for the Muslim community. Who would lead the group and keep it unified? The answer affected the faith’s spread and its future. Muhammad had not named successor No clear candidate Abu Bakr, close companion, early convert, chosen leader, called caliph, “successor” Muhammad’s Successors Abu Bakr focused on bringing back bedouin tribes Built strong Arab fighting forces to keep tribes under control Reunified Arabia, led forces north Priorities Abu Bakr, successor Umar, expanded Muslim rule rapidly 637 early victory against Persian forces in Iraq 642 victory over Persian Empire complete Expansion of Territory

37 The Sunni-Shia Split -It’s All About Family-
Muhammad and Khadija are credited with having several daughters, although the parentage of them is questioned by scholars; they may have been adopted by Muhammad rather than sired by him. Uthman (the 3rd Caliph) was married to one of these daughters, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad. However, historically these daughters have been marginalized, most likely because they did not bear any surviving children or survive their father. For the purposes of this presentation, all family relations have been simplified, thus we can state that Fatima was the only surviving daughter of Muhammad. Khadija First Wife Prophet Muhammad Fatima

38 The Sunni-Shia Split -It’s All About Family-
Abu Bakr Friend and Early Convert Abu Talib Muhammad’s Uncle Prophet Muhammad Khadija (First Wife) Aisha Ali Muhammad’s Cousin Fatima

39 The Sunni-Shia Split -It’s All About Family-
Fatima Ali 1st Imam Hassan 2nd Imam Hussein 3rd Imam Zaynab Umm Al-Kaltum Ali Zain Al-Abideen 4th Imam All Other Imams Descend from this Line.

40 Muhammad’s Succession
632- Muhammad dies, leaving no confirmed successor* Disagreement among clans on who will lead the faith- bloodline (Ali) or the one most capable The Ummah (the Islamic community) elects Muhammad’s father-in-law (through his wife Aisha) Abu Bakr to lead the faith. He becomes the first Caliph - the leader of the Ummah.

41 The Rashidun (632-661) The Rule of the Four Righted Guided Caliphs
Name Ruled Died Known For Abu Bakr 1st Caliph elected Natural causes, appointed his successor Quelled rebellion and united Arabia Umar ibn al-Khattab 2nd Caliph appointed Stabbed in a Medina mosque by a POW with a personal grudge. Wars of expansion (power not religion but religion followed) to the greater Middle East Uthman ibn Affan 3rd Caliph Assassinated by those from the elite of Medina over the rise of status and power of the Umayyad clan. Expanded the empire to North Africa and Central Asia- but with much political cost. Standardized the Qu’ran. Ali ibn Abu Talib 4th Caliph/1st Imam Assassinated by Kharajiites, a group of dissenters to Ali’s rule Ruled during the first Fitnah (civil war). His place in history is denoted more for who he was rather than what he did.

42 First Fitnah A 5 Year Civil War that lasted through Ali’s Reign
Angered over Ali’s reluctance to seek revenge in the death of Uthman, Aisha and her kinsman lead a revolt against Ali in the Battle of the Camel, which was lost by the rebels. Ali’s rule was not supported in Syria (where Uthman had appointed members of the Umayyad clan in power). Mu’awiya, governor of Syria, also wanted revenge for Uthman’s death. The Battle of Siffin (657) ended in arbitration between the two sides, which seriously hurt Ali politically.

43 A Community Divided The Shia (followers of Ali) had been supporting Ali as the rightful head of the Islamic faith since the death of Muhammad. Now as Ali was being persecuted politically, the idea of being unfairly treated was being ingrained in the Shia psyche. As Ali was not actively seeking retribution for Uthman’s death, the Ummah was growing more and more discontent with the Caliph, garnering more support for challengers to the Caliphate like Mu’awiya. The Ummah was also horrified by the infighting between those that had once been a part of Muhammad’s inner circle, the community wanted a strong leader, not only for their protection but for the preservation of the faith. The true split in Islam came with the death of Ali. The Shia, who supported Ali went one way, and the Sunni, who followed Mu’awiya I (who declared himself Caliph and began the Umayyad dynasty) went the other.

44 Second Fitnah Mu’awiya I had managed to reconsolidate the Ummah, although in order to keep the community intact long-term, a new style of government closer to a monarchy than of an Arab Chieftain was needed. Mu’awiya arranged for his son Yezid to succeed him. Outraged at the choice of succession, Hussein (the son of Ali) and his followers demanded their rights to the Caliphate, which culminates in the Battle of Karbala in 680.

45 The Battle of Karbala and its outcomes
Supporters of Hussein ibn Ali against Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph. Horribly outnumbered: under 100 vs Results- all men were massacred, women and childern in capitivity and made to march to Damascus, including Hussein’s sister Zaynab The Martyrdom of Hussein is celebrated by Shia, this day is called Ashura.

46 Sunni and Shia Today Population statistics (Sunni 90%, Shia 10%)
Cult of Martyrdom- the 12 Imams Concept of the Mahdi Areas of the World where conflict between the two exist. Iraq and Bahrain

47 Sunni and Shia Today Concealing Faith for Self Protection
Temporary Marriages Frequency of Prayer

48 Sufism Sufism, the mystical tradition of Islam, dates back to Muhammad’s lifetime Forms of Sufism are found in both Sunni and Shi’a Islam Sufism has often stood in contrast to more legalistically oriented approaches to Islamic life, to the extent that some orthodox Sunnis do not consider Sufis to be Muslim

49 Other Branches of Islam
Wahhabi (Wahabi) – sect in 1700s that believed any forms of Islam after the 900s were wrong and need to be expunged, led to many jihad’s against the Sunni’s in particular. Against ostentation so no minarets on mosques and only plain clothing allowed An orthodox, traditionalist branch

50 Other branches of Islam
Ismailis – form of Shia, accepts 12 Imams, split on 6th Imam and succession Druze – offshoot of Ismaili sect, that promotes gnostic philosophy, they believe the Fatimid Caliph will return on Judgment Day as the Mahdi Ahmadiyya – founded in 1889, claim Mahdi came and his descendants are the caliphs in India Hashashin – “Assassins;” an order of Ismailis that were trained killers meant to harass the Sunnis and others whom they considered heretics; rumors of the use of hashish to prepare them for their suicide missions and the promises of direct passage to heaven with wine and women

51 Other branches of Islam
Kharijite – only surviving sect is the Ibadi; claim the Imam must be pure spiritually and stand fast in their faith; some Imams not accepted Ahl-e Haqq – believe that god continuously manifests himself in reincarnations throughout time; world is divided into 2 – internal and external Mahdavism – monastic version of Islam; focus on prayer and meditation Moorish Science – founded in 1913 in America; claims all African Americans are originally Moors and therefore should be Muslim Nation of Islam – founded in Detroit in 1930; believes Fard Muhammad was God on earth; “taking back the true place of the black man and woman;” considered heretical by most other Muslims

52 Other Branches of Islam
Babs/Baha’i – followers of Shiraz, who claimed to be Mahdi (Messiah) and changed his name to “The Bab”; broke away from mainstream Islam, and was executed in Iran in 1850; teaches humanity is one single race all coming from God Sikhs – combination of Islam and Hinduism that rejects both religions policies of discrimination; equality of all humans Nuwaubu – originally a sect of Islam; now more of a New Age cult, believes extraterrestrial beings speak through their founder Malachi York and reveal God’s plan; use ancient Egyptian and Sumerian texts to prove it.

53 The Spread of Islam Islam spread rapidly as both a spiritual and secular power. The stereotypical image of forced conversions by the sword is false; the more typical means of conversion came through personal contacts in trade, in the appeal of charismatic Sufis, and the example of particular Muslims

54 Islamic Culture The Abbasids took over the caliphate in 750 CE, and moved the capital to Baghdad. A period of great intellectual and artistic activity followed. Islam absorbed, transmitted, and expanded upon traditions from other cultures, such as Persian art and poetry.

55 Islamic Art

56 Islamic Art

57 Eastward Expansion Islam also moved eastward through central Asia into India and beyond The Mongols and the Turks converted to Islam

58 Relationship with the West
Many Christians in medieval Europe denounced Islam and Muhammad, portraying Muhammad as an idolater and Islam as a polytheistic faith The legacy of such negative characterizations of Islam persists in the West to the present Both Christianity and Islam consider themselves the ultimate religion

59 Islam in the West Islam is the fastest growing religion in the United States, and may be the second largest religion in the country About two­thirds of American Muslims are immigrants and their descendants The remainder are converts, most of whom are African-­American

60 Muslim Resurgence Most of the world’s oil-rich nations are predominantly Muslim Oil wealth led to social change in many Muslim nations; in response, some Muslims turned to Islam as a blueprint for modern political rule While modern industrial societies have tended to make religion a private matter, some contemporary Muslim reformers seek to create societies in which religious principles imbue all aspects of life

61 Tradition and Modern Life
In some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia, particular versions of Shari’ah take primacy over European-derived legal codes. Many women Muslim scholars are conducting a reexamination of the Qur’an and Hadith for new understandings of women’s issues. There is no political unit of global Islam, and no single understanding of what a modern Islamic state should be.

62 Outreach and Education
Muslim outreach is on the increase, often using modern forms of mass communication such as satellite television

63 Islam in Politics Muslims and non-Muslims are concerned with the role various forms of Islam play in politics, especially interpretations of Islam linked to suicide terrorist attacks, and forms of Islam which express antagonism towards the West The violence of groups such as al-Qaeda and Palestinian suicide bombers has led to growing anti­Muslim sentiment despite efforts by many prominent Muslim leaders to distance their faith from such acts, arguing that the Qur’an provides no sanction whatsoever for terrorist acts

64 Holidays Sunni & Shia: Eid al-Adha (Festival of Sacrifice – Abraham prepared to sacrifice Ishmael – replaced by ram 1/3 to family; 1/3 to friends and relatives; 1/3 to the poor), Eid al-Fitr (Festival of the Closing of the Fast) – 3 day celebration at the end of Ramadan, large meal served at the ending of the month long fasting from dawn to sunset; this festival concludes with a pilgrimage to Mecca (the Hajj) 1st of Muharram – New Year’s – spent in prayer, quiet holiday Mawlid al-Nabi – Muhammed’s birthday – rememberances of Muhammed (Wahhabi do not celebrate it)

65 Holidays Shia: Ashura Ashura- a day of mourning. Men would beat their chests, and cut their bodies with knives. As most religious elite ban the cutting practice it still happens, they encourage the Shia to donate blood instead to commemorate the blood spilled at the battle of Karbala.

66 Holy Places Sunni: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem
Shia: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Najaf (Site of Ali’s Tomb), Karbala

67 Islam for the Future Religious modernists, Islamists, and secularists are all trying to understand the roots of extremism in Islam and devise alternative means of relating to a changing world While Western media may focus on sensational manifestations of Islamism, there are many currents of forward­looking thought within Islam

68 Creating a culture of fear

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