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Arab World.

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Presentation on theme: "Arab World."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arab World

2 Arab World -Arabian Peninsula – crossroads between 3 continents – Africa, Europe and Asia -Persian Gulf – East / Red Sea – West / Indian Ocean - South -Harsh desert – makes up most of the land -Loosely connected tribes – provided security and support for a life made difficult by the extreme conditions -Sheik-Tribal leader -Bedouins – Arab nomads – ideals of courage, loyalty to family and warrior skills became a part of Islamic life -Caravan trade – trading in groups for protection

3 Arabian Peninsula

4 Arab Religion -Allah – the God of Islam -All Muslims as descendants of Abraham – Ishmael -Ka’aba – shrine in the city of Mecca -Mecca – city in western Arabia – center of the Islamic world -Muhammad – born in the city of Mecca -Trader but very religious – married Khadijah – 15 years -Revelations from Allah – through the angel Gabriel –age 40 -Prophet of Allah -Moses, Jesus – prior prophets -Qur’an – Islamic Holy Book – Islamic Bible – contains 114 chapters -Exile to Medina 622 AD – called Hijrah -First year of Muslim calendar -Return to Mecca in 630 after years of warfare – Muhammad and 10,000 -Political and religious control expands

5 Religious Leadership -Arab Empire -Who to succeed Muhammad? -He died at age 62 and had not named a successor to lead -Caliph - “Successor to the Prophet” -Abu Bakr – friend of Muhammad – became Caliph -Spread of Islam through the 7th and early 8th century -North Africa, Persia, Pakistan, Western Europe -Jihad – means striving -can refer to the inner struggle against evil -can also mean armed struggle against unbelievers (infidels) -Abu Bakr used Jihad to expand Islam -Umayyad Dynasty – family that came to power after Ali was assassinated -Moved Muslim capital – Damascus – got away from Mecca -Began to live a life of wealth unlike the previous caliphs -Hereditary caliphate established

6 Spread of Islam -Invasion of Spain -Berber clans from Northern Africa had converted to Islam -Invaded Spain through the Strait of Gibraltar -Berber Invaders became known as Moors -Berber armies advanced north to within 200 miles from Paris -Battle of Tours in 732 France stopped Muslim advance -Continued to rule Spain for next 700 years

7 Strait of Gibraltar

8 Arab Politics -Split of Islam over the succession of the caliph -Sunni -Umayyad Line – based on merits and achievement -Shi’a -Ali Line – direct lineage of Muhammad – son in law -Abbasid Dynasty – took over after the Umayyads were overthrown -From Baghdad as capital – newly created city – 762 – central Iraq -Bureaucracy – to conduct the huge empire’s affairs -Taxed land, imports and exports, and non-Muslims’ wealth -Downfall over succession, bureaucracy problems

9 Mecca

10 Damascus

11 Baghdad

12 Islam

13 Islam -Teachings of Muhammad -Monotheistic -Allah -Islam -Muslim -Submission to the will of God

14 Basic Beliefs -Muhammad not divine -Qur’an – the holy book -Arabic language -5 Pillars of Islam

15 1st Pillar -Belief -a simple declaration of one’s faith in Islam -saying that there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah

16 2nd Pillar -Prayer -Always facing Mecca -Many gather in Mosques to pray -5 times daily at specified times

17 3rd Pillar -Almsgiving -charity to the poor -all people are supposed to be cared for under Islamic teachings

18 4th Pillar -Fasting -Holy Month of Ramadan - typically June into July (29-30 days) -Fasting from sunrise to sunset -Shows faith and obedience

19 5th Pillar -Pilgrimage -trip to visit Holy sites in the Islamic faith especially Mecca -called the Hajj -should be completed at least once in a person’s life

20 Islamic Mosques -Mosques -House of worship -No furnishings -No images -No official priests -Friday as the day of worship

21 Islamic Law -Shari’ah -Muslim law described by the Qur’an -Regulate the facts of everyday life

22 Split of Islam -Sunni Muslims -form the majority of Islamic peoples -Sia Muslims -believe in a hereditary caliph who is a direct descendant of Muhammad

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