Presentation on theme: "Philosophy A crash course.. Schools of Thought O These are some of the philosophical areas of thought or study. O We’ll look at specific scholars later—today."— Presentation transcript:
Schools of Thought O These are some of the philosophical areas of thought or study. O We’ll look at specific scholars later—today we’ll focus on a few areas.
On your notecard… O “I think, therefore, I am.” O What does this mean in a literal sense? O How can you turn this into a philosophical question? O Do you know who said this and what school of philosophy he represents?
Aesthetics O Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty as concepts as well as how we ought to evaluate potential instances of beauty and artistic creation.
Aesthetics: Questions O What is beauty? O Are some things objectively beautiful? O What makes for a great work of art? O Can something be humorous even if it never makes anyone laugh? O What makes something ugly or objectionable to view? O Why should we care about art?
Africana Philosophy O Africana Philosophy deals with the systematic ways in which persons of color have been oppressed, marginalized, and otherwise forgotten throughout the history of western and contemporary society. It also proposes solutions for ensuring that the contributions of persons of color are appropriately valued and taken seriously.
Africana Philosophy: Questions O What is race? O How should we view interracial marriage? O What is racism? Is it possible to get rid of it? O Do we owe slave reparations? O Should there be affirmative action? If so, in what form? O Why is diversity important?
Ethics O Ethics deals with the question of how people ought to act with regard to themselves, other people, and the world.
Ethics: Questions O What should I do in a particular situation? O How should I decide what to do in a particular situation? O When, if ever, is it okay to tell a lie? O Do animals have rights? O Should we care about strangers? O Are we ever in a situation where there is no morally correct course of action? O Should corporations have the same rights as people? O Given worries about overpopulation, is it morally acceptable to have more than one child?
Existentialism O Existentialism begins with the claim that existence precedes essence. This means that humans are radically free to choose their own life plan and, furthermore, have an obligation to do so. Any limitations placed on this radical freedom by either the government or other persons are moral failings, according to existentialist thinkers.
Existentialism: Questions O Why do certain life plans seem shallow while others seem deeply meaningful? O What is it to be authentic? O What is wrong with hypocrisy? O What is the purpose of life? O What attitude should we take toward life? O Is faith (religious faith, faith in the goodness of others, faith in a rational universe, etc.) a form of delusion?
Feminist Philosophy O Feminist philosophy critically examines the ways in which gender, sex, race, class, etc. are socially constructed, oppressive concepts. It also provides appropriate political responses to the subordination of various groups.
Feminist Philosophy: Questions O How do you tell when a group is oppressed? O What is it to be a woman or a man? O Should oppression and subordination be dealt with by political activism? O Is there a difference between gender and sex? O Should women be primary caregivers for children? O What does racial oppression have in common with gender oppression?
Logic O Logic is the study of abstract symbolic reasoning. It resembles mathematics in that it works from axioms and seeks to prove theorems, but it differs in that it does not involve numbers. It is also self-reflective in a way that mathematics tends not to be. Namely, it questions the truth of its own axioms.
Logic: Questions O What is infinity? O What makes an argument a good argument? O What is truth? What is falsity? O What is the fundamental meaning of words like “and,” “or,” “but,” and “therefore.” O Can something be both true and false? Or neither? O What is nonsense?
Metaphysics O Metaphysics is the study of what exists and the structure within which the objects that make up the world operate.
Metaphysics: Questions O What is time? O What does it mean for one event to cause another event? O Could everything exist only in my mind? O Do I have a soul? Or am I just a material body? O How am I the same person today that I was yesterday, or five years ago? O What makes something alive?