Presentation on theme: "Single-Group Studies Based on C.E. Sleeter & C.A. Grant (2003). Making Choices for Multicultural Education (4 th Ed.)"— Presentation transcript:
Single-Group Studies Based on C.E. Sleeter & C.A. Grant (2003). Making Choices for Multicultural Education (4 th Ed.)
Goals & Rationale Societal: –Promote social equality by providing information about a specific group and the effects of past and present discrimination. –Empower specific oppressed group. Educational: –Create curriculum that counterbalances that which is traditionally White, middle-class male dominated.
Philosophical Framework Myth of the Neutrality of Education –Many believe that education is neutral and free of bias. –Schooling is a social process. Related to social & political history, beliefs & ideals. –Lack of resources need to be considered in relation to access to resources.
Philosophical Framework Perspectives about Inequalities (pp. 119) Dominant GroupOppressed Group Nature of SocietyFair, openUnfair, rigged Nature of “have- not” groups Lack ambition, effort, culture, language, skills, education Strong, resourceful, work to advance
Philosophical Framework Myth of the Neutrality of Education –Democracy and cultural allegiance paradox Students are encouraged to examine issues Information is limited to select groups Social Purpose of Schooling –“Schools have a daily impact on students and prepare them for the roles they will have as adults.” (pp. 123)
Philosophical Framework Social Purpose of Schooling –Social control by influencing attitudes and modifying behavior. Helps students fit into cultural and social tradition –Schools become sorting machines –Schools help in identity development Identity for dominant and oppressed group members can move towards social change
Philosophical Framework: Stages of Identity Development (pp. 125) Dominant Group Encapsulation: Comfortable with status quo; other groups’ experiences and perspectives unseen; accepts stereotypes. Disintegration: Evidence of discrimination clashes with previous perspective- feels guilt and/or anger. Reintegration: Resolves discomfort by returning as close as possible to encapsulation. Pseudo-independence: Resolves discomfort by seeking information about and/or coming into contact with other groups; establishes identity with others. Autonomy: Works to end discrimination against oppressed groups; positive identity with own group but does not accept superior status.
Philosophical Framework: Stages of Identity Development (pp. 125) Oppressed Group Conformity: Identify with dominant group and its version of society; accept negative image of own group. Dissonance: Evidence of discrimination clashes with previous perspectives; causes confusion; seeks knowledge. Resistance & immersion: Actively reject dominant society & beliefs; thirst for knowledge about own group. Internalization: Strong positive identity with own group; willing to connect with dominant group but not with subordinate status. Commitment: Committed to work against discrimination; strong positive identity with own group; willing to work with dominant group members at autonomous stage.
Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.” “THE CANON” –The works of knowledge that holds cultural capitol in a society. Literary works (The Odyssey) Philosophical, political, & religious texts (The Bible, The Gettysburg Address) History (mainstream) –The question becomes, “Who has the right to determine what should become part of the Canon?”
Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.” How can the Canon be reworked? –Each group can come from different perspectives. Centering: When does their history begin? –The history of most groups are determined by those in power. The historical starting point tends to be when it impacts dominant group. –All groups have a history before that point. –Single-group studies help determine when history starts.
Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.” Social creation of “Natural” categories. –Certain traits and characteristics are viewed as biological and therefore natural (gender, race). –Certain traits assigned to certain groups are social constructs (skin color tied to intelligence, women and math). –Single-group studies examine why “natural” categories exist and how they can be changed.
Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.” Social construct of social theories. –Research is viewed as neutral and therefore provides us with the objective truth. –Western thought has a particular lense for viewing world and theories correspond to such lenses. –Other world views provide different lenses. (Egypt contributed to the development of Greek thought.) –Single-group theory provides other possibilities.
Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.” The strength of oppressed groups. –Mainstream media tend to portray oppressed groups as weak and accepting. –Single-group studies provide oppressed group with understanding of group strengths. Less willing to accept oppressive conditions.
Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.” Group identity in the literature and the arts –The identity of minority groups, as portrayed in the media, often justify the social position held by such groups. –Single-group studies encourages and promotes development of authentic representation in the literature and the arts.
Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.” A Collective Sense –Social change occurs when an oppressed group comes together as a group and work together. Can be difficult in helping members of group see collective needs Difficult to maintain over time Group Liberation –Oppressed groups regain control of group history. Those with wealth and control are seen as helping all Those from oppressed groups present history from their perspectives
Recommended Practices Curriculum: Creates knowledge that encourages understanding and social change in relation to single-group. –Must not come from dominant group perspective. It becomes viewed as an individual choice, not collective matter. It focuses on superficial aspects of group such as customs, foods, and holidays
Recommended Practices Curriculum: Includes history of group from their perspective. –It begins before becoming part of dominant group history. –It includes aspects of history that present conflicts and change. –It provides heroes and heroines from group perspective. –It includes writers and artists from group. –Philosophical world views are included. –Contemporary struggles are addressed.
Recommended Practices Implementation: How will the program come together? –Separate curricular area: Development of Ethnic Studies type courses. Allows for focused study of group. –Integrated into mainstream: Includes minority histories and experiences into the mainstream. Could make groups even more marginal due to lack of “center.”