2 Defining Computers A computer is an electronic device that: Accepts inputProcesses dataStores dataProduces output
3 Defining Computers A computer system is made up of: Hardware—the physical componentsSoftware—the programs or instructions
4 What do computers look like? Various sizes and shapesPerform the 4 basic functions
5 Four Categories of Computers Personal ComputersHand-held ComputersMainframe ComputersSupercomputers
6 Categories of computers Personal ComputersSingle-userDesktopsLaptops or NotebookTabletSubnotebookSlate
7 Categories of computers Hand-held ComputersSmall, fit in the palm of the handUsually limited capabilities and processing powerSmartphonesMP3 playersSome e-readers
8 Categories of computers Mainframe ComputersFound in medium to large businesses or government agenciesCentralized storage and processingHandles large amounts of dataAccommodates many users
9 Categories of computers SupercomputersFound in very large businesses or government agenciesTremendous processing powerMight be used in research to perform simulations or make predictions
10 Essential Components Processing Peripherals Modify data to produce information.Performed by electronic components on the motherboard.Directed by Central Processing Unit (CPU).Controlled by programs (instructions).PeripheralsProvide input, output, and storage functions.
11 Essential Components Input devices Output devices Converts user data or commands to a format the electronic components of a computer can understand.Examples: Keyboard, mouse, microphoneOutput devicesCoverts data or information from a format the computer understands to a format the user can understand.Examples: Monitor, printer, speakers
12 Essential Components Storage Temporary storage: where data and programs are stored while they are in use. Also called memory, primary storage, or RAM.Secondary storage: where data and programs are permanently stored while not in use. Includes hard drives, USB drives, and CD drives.Since data is only stored temporarily while in use, it’s important to save your work periodically to secondary storage.
13 How is data stored?Patterns of zeroes and ones (electric signals “off” or “on”).Can be stored temporarily (RAM) or permanently (hard drive, USB drive, etc…).When stored on permanent devices, organized in files.File management: organization of files.
14 Why so many storage options? Each storage option has benefits / drawbacksTemporary storage: Very fast for processing but is erased when the power is turned off.Permanent storage: Slower than temporary but data can be accessed repeatedly until erased by user.Hard drive is the most common permanent storage. Fast but not portable.Removable devices provide portability but slower than most hard drives.
15 Data Representation Data and programs stored as files A file is a collection of bits (binary digits)1 (“on”) and 0 (“off”) are referred to as bits.Eight bits = one byte.Smallest recognizable unit; represents a unique characterKilobyte (KB) is about one thousand bytesMegabyte (MB) is about one million bytesGigabyte (GB), is about one billion bytesTerabyte (GB), is about one trillion bytes
16 Computer SoftwareStep-by-step instructions that tell the computer hardware how to accomplish the task.Can refer to a single program or a package.Three basic types of softwareSystem software helps the computer carry out its basic operating tasks.Application software helps the user carry out a variety of tasks.Security software helps protect the computer and data from malicious attacks.
17 System SoftwareMany programs that carry out basic computing functions:Getting inputProcessing dataStoring dataProducing outputVital part of the “computer system”Four categories: Operating system, device drivers, utilities, and programming languages.
18 System Software Operating System Manages the computer’s resources Load data and instructions into memorySave data to permanent storageCoordinate use of resourcesProvide a user interfaceMany more functions
19 System Software Device Drivers Utilities Programming Languages Coordinates communication between the computer and peripheralsUsually provided by the manufacturerUtilitiesPerform specific tasksReduce burden on operating systemProgramming LanguagesAllow people to write instructions (programs) for the computer to follow
20 Which operating system (OS)? Depends on the type of computerThree main operating systems for personal computers: Windows, MAC OS (Apple computers), and LinuxNew computers typically have OS already installedHand-held computers usually have a mobile version of an OS or one designed specifically for the device
21 Application SoftwareApplication software enables you to perform specific tasks. Application software for PCs include:Document production softwareSpreadsheet softwareDatabase management softwareGraphics and presentation softwareNote: Today’s smartphones have thousands of “apps” that perform specific functions.
22 Application SoftwareDocument production software includes word processing, desktop publishing, and Web authoring software that assist you in writing and formatting documents. Often has grammar and spell-checking, thesaurus, search and replace, and template features.
23 Application SoftwareWith spreadsheet software, you can create formulas that perform calculations. Spreadsheet software creates worksheets with columns and rows.
24 Application SoftwareDatabase management software creates structured databases to store, sort, and retrieve information.
25 Application SoftwareGraphics and presentation software allow you to create illustrations, diagrams, and slide shows.
26 Data Communication Transmit data… from one computer to another Via cables, telephone, or wirelessfrom the computer to a peripheral deviceVia ports and cables connected to computerExpansion cards allow you to add more ports and thus more communication capabilities or functionality.from one component of the computer to anotherVia the data bus
27 Learning About Networks Networks connect computers and computer devices so that data and resources can be shared.Require special hardware and softwareNetwork Interface Card (NIC)Network softwareTypes of NetworksLAN (local area network)WAN (wide area network)PAN (personal area network)Wireless
28 Learning About Networks Networks can be found in many placesHomeShare printer or files, Internet access, play gamesWorkShare hardware, files, and Internet accessAccess special softwareSchoolAccess to hardware, Internet, special programs
29 Learning About Networks Accessing a network accountTypically requires a username and passwordAccount permissions determine what devices or drives can be accessed.Example:School network gives access to network storage drives and classroom printers.Home network gives access to different storage drives and devices.
30 Security Threats - Malware Malware is software that is designed to cause harm to your data or computer or transfer personal information without your knowledge or permission.Examples: Viruses, Trojans, Worms, Spyware, Rogue softwareTransferred to your computer vias and attachmentsFiles transferred on diskInstalling softwareSurfing the web
31 Security Threats – Malware Protection Antivirus softwareDetects, disables and/or removes most viruses, trojans, and wormsAnti-spyware softwareDetects and removes programs used to track surfing habits or transmit personal informationFirewallBlocks access to your computer without your permissionHardware or software solution
32 Security Threats - Phishing Phishing involves two phasesSpoofingThe creation of a “fake” web site designed to look like the site of a legitimate business.The “fake” site is actually designed to steal personal information.PhishingThe process of sending an containing a link to a spoofed site to unsuspecting people.The intention is to steal personal information.
33 Security Threats – Phishing Protection Be wary!Most legitimate businesses will not send you an asking for personal information.If the seems strange, it probably is not legitimate. If you are not sure, look up the company phone number (don’t use one from the ) and give them a call.Look for spelling and grammar errors.Point (DON’T CLICK) to the link contained in the . The URL of the link will be displayed in the status bar. In many cases the URL will be very different than the actual business URL.
35 Resources www.howstuffworks.com Many great articles on computer hardware and softwareLots of help and how-to articles, videos, and training exercises for Windows and OfficeTons of undated information on protection your computer and your family online(or any search engine)Type in search words to find exactly what you are looking for
36 Links Link to video about rogue software Info about protecting family onlineMS Security YouTube channel