Presentation on theme: "Cell Theory & Cell Organelles"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cell Theory & Cell Organelles Sections 3.1 & 3.2
2 3.1 Cell TheoryKey Concept:Cells are the basic unit of life.
3 The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope. Many scientists contributed to the cell theory.More was learned about cells as microscopes improved.
4 Early studies led to the development of the cell theory. All organisms are made of cells.All cells come from other cells.The cell is the basic unit of structure & function in living things.
5 All cells share certain characteristics. Cells tend to be microscopic.All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane.All cells are filled with cytoplasm.All cells have ribosomes.
6 There are two cell types: eukaryotic cells & prokaryotic cells Have a nucleusHave membrane-bound organellesProkaryotic cellsDo not have a nucleus (still have DNA)Do not have membrane-bound organelles
8 Review from 3.1All cells have:Plasma MembraneCytoplasmRibosomes
9 Plasma Membrane (aka Cell Membrane) Function: Controls what enters and leaves the cellMade of:PhospholipidsProteinsCarbohydratesCholesterolSteroids111IN ALLCELLS
10 CytoplasmFunction: holds organelles in place; location of various reactions in the cellOrganelles: parts of the cell with specific jobs/functions222IN ALLCELLS
11 Ribosomes Function: protein synthesis Found in cytoplasm or on the Rough ERIN ALLCELLS
12 Nucleus Function: Control center of the cell (“brain”) Has its own membraneStores DNA4343
13 Nucleolus Function: Makes RNA (a nucleic acid) Found inside the nucleus
14 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) “Roadway” of the cellRough ERSmooth ERHelps make and transport proteinsRibosomes on surface make it look roughHelps break down toxins, poisons, and wasteHelps process carbs & lipids
15 Golgi Apparatus (Golgi body) Function: Packages products (ex. – proteins) for the cell to exportUPS for the cell
16 Lysosomes Function: Contain enzymes to digest materials for the cell Not found in plant cells
17 Mitochondria Function: Where energy is made for the cell Have a double membraneInner membrane (cristae) is folded – this increases surface area to allow more energy to be made at a timeOther structures in the body are like this as well (small intestine, lungs)Singular: mitochondrion
18 Plastids Chloroplast Chromoplast Site of photosynthesis (makes food) Pigment-containing organellesChloroplastChromoplastSite of photosynthesis (makes food)Make and store pigments in fruits, roots, etc. (red color in tomatoes)6
19 Vacuole Function: Stores water and food Plant cells: large and singularAnimal cells: small and numerous
20 CytoskeletonFunction: helps cell maintain shape; helps cell move; helps move organelles around inside the cell (like railroad tracks)
21 Centrioles Function: helps with cell division Only in animal cells PART OF CYTOSKELETON
22 Cilia & Flagella Function: Help with cell movement PART OF CYTOSKELETON
23 Cell Wall Function: protection for plant, fungal, and bacterial cells 55
24 Review Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Have nucleus (DNA) Have membrane-bound organellesLarger size because of organellesMore complexUnicellular or multicellularNo nucleus (still have DNA)No membrane-bound organellesSmaller size because of lack of organellesLess complexUnicellular