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Cell Theory & Cell Organelles

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Theory & Cell Organelles"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Theory & Cell Organelles
Sections 3.1 & 3.2

2 3.1 Cell Theory Key Concept: Cells are the basic unit of life.

3 The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope.
Many scientists contributed to the cell theory. More was learned about cells as microscopes improved.

4 Early studies led to the development of the cell theory.
All organisms are made of cells. All cells come from other cells. The cell is the basic unit of structure & function in living things.

5 All cells share certain characteristics.
Cells tend to be microscopic. All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane. All cells are filled with cytoplasm. All cells have ribosomes.

6 There are two cell types: eukaryotic cells & prokaryotic cells
Have a nucleus Have membrane-bound organelles Prokaryotic cells Do not have a nucleus (still have DNA) Do not have membrane-bound organelles

7 3.2 Cell Organelles Key Concept:
Eukaryotic cells share many similarities.

8 Review from 3.1 All cells have: Plasma Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes

9 Plasma Membrane (aka Cell Membrane)
Function: Controls what enters and leaves the cell Made of: Phospholipids Proteins Carbohydrates Cholesterol Steroids 1 1 1 IN ALL CELLS

10 Cytoplasm Function: holds organelles in place; location of various reactions in the cell Organelles: parts of the cell with specific jobs/functions 2 2 2 IN ALL CELLS

11 Ribosomes Function: protein synthesis
Found in cytoplasm or on the Rough ER IN ALL CELLS

12 Nucleus Function: Control center of the cell (“brain”)
Has its own membrane Stores DNA 4 3 4 3

13 Nucleolus Function: Makes RNA (a nucleic acid)
Found inside the nucleus

14 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
 “Roadway” of the cell Rough ER Smooth ER Helps make and transport proteins Ribosomes on surface make it look rough Helps break down toxins, poisons, and waste Helps process carbs & lipids

15 Golgi Apparatus (Golgi body)
Function: Packages products (ex. – proteins) for the cell to export UPS for the cell

16 Lysosomes Function: Contain enzymes to digest materials for the cell
Not found in plant cells

17 Mitochondria Function: Where energy is made for the cell
Have a double membrane Inner membrane (cristae) is folded – this increases surface area to allow more energy to be made at a time Other structures in the body are like this as well (small intestine, lungs) Singular: mitochondrion

18 Plastids Chloroplast Chromoplast Site of photosynthesis (makes food)
 Pigment-containing organelles Chloroplast Chromoplast Site of photosynthesis (makes food) Make and store pigments in fruits, roots, etc. (red color in tomatoes) 6

19 Vacuole Function: Stores water and food
Plant cells: large and singular Animal cells: small and numerous

20 Cytoskeleton Function: helps cell maintain shape; helps cell move; helps move organelles around inside the cell (like railroad tracks)

21 Centrioles Function: helps with cell division Only in animal cells

22 Cilia & Flagella Function: Help with cell movement

23 Cell Wall Function: protection for plant, fungal, and bacterial cells
5 5

24 Review Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Have nucleus (DNA)
Have membrane-bound organelles Larger size because of organelles More complex Unicellular or multicellular No nucleus (still have DNA) No membrane-bound organelles Smaller size because of lack of organelles Less complex Unicellular

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