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Unit 2: The Cell KEY CONCEPT Eukaryotic cells share many similarities.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2: The Cell KEY CONCEPT Eukaryotic cells share many similarities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2: The Cell KEY CONCEPT Eukaryotic cells share many similarities.

2 Unit 2: The Cell Nucleus contains the chromosomes which are composed of DNA (a chemical compound called deoxyribonucleic acid); functions in the genetic control of the cell.

3 Unit 2: The Cell Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration, a process which supplies the cell with energy.

4 Unit 2: The Cell Lysosomes contain chemicals called enzymes necessary for digesting certain materials in the cell.

5 Unit 2: The Cell Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex, extensive network that transports materials throughout the inside of a cell.

6 Unit 2: The Cell There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum. – –rough endoplasmic reticulum – –smooth endoplasmic reticulum

7 Unit 2: The Cell Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. They link Amino Acids together; some are located on the ER, others are found in the cytoplasm.

8 Unit 2: The Cell Vacuoles store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates; vacuoles in animal cells (if they are present) are much smaller than those in plant cells.

9 Unit 2: The Cell Chloroplasts are found only in plant cells, contain the green pigment, chlorophyll, which absorbs energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar through the process of photosynthesis.

10 Unit 2: The Cell Plant, Fungi, and some Protist cells have cell walls. A cell wall provides rigid support and protection.

11 Unit 2: The Cell Cells have an internal structure.

12 Unit 2: The Cell Cells have an internal structure. The cytoskeleton has many functions.

13 Unit 2: The Cell Cells have an internal structure. The cytoskeleton has many functions. – –supports and shapes cell

14 Unit 2: The Cell Cells have an internal structure. The cytoskeleton has many functions. – –supports and shapes cell – –helps position and transport organelles

15 Unit 2: The Cell Cells have an internal structure. The cytoskeleton has many functions. – –supports and shapes cell – –helps position and transport organelles – –provides strength

16 Unit 2: The Cell Cells have an internal structure. The cytoskeleton has many functions. – –supports and shapes cell – –helps position and transport organelles – –provides strength – –assists in cell division

17 Unit 2: The Cell Cells have an internal structure. The cytoskeleton has many functions. – –supports and shapes cell – –helps position and transport organelles – –provides strength – –assists in cell division – –aids in cell movement

18 Unit 2: The Cell Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins. (continued) Ribosomes link amino acids to form proteins. Vesicles are membrane-bound sacs that hold materials. They are used to transport materials in the cell.

19 Unit 2: The Cell Other organelles have various functions. Centrioles are tubes found in the centrosomes.

20 Unit 2: The Cell Other organelles have various functions. Centrioles are tubes found in the centrosomes. – –Centrioles help divide DNA.

21 Unit 2: The Cell The Golgi apparatus is a part of the membrane system within the cell as well and works closely with the endoplasmic reticulum.

22 Unit 2: The Cell The Golgi Apparatus modifies proteins and brings them to the cell surface where they can be secreted in the form of hormones, enzymes, antibodies and other molecules.


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