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Unit 4 Lesson Planning Students: 50 sophomores Lesson duration: 2 periods Background information:

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1 Unit 4 Lesson Planning Students: 50 sophomores Lesson duration: 2 periods Background information:

2 Teaching objectives: 1. understand the importance of lesson planning 2. master the principles for good lesson planning 3. know the differences between macro planning vs. micro planning 4. grasp the components of a lesson plan 5. write a lesson plan according to the samples By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

3 Teaching contents: Why is lesson planning important? Principles for good lesson planning Macro planning vs. micro planning Components of a lesson plan Sample lesson plans

4 Key and difficult points: 1. Principles for good lesson planning 2. Components of a lesson plan Teaching Methods: 1. Lecture ( Computer-aided Instruction) 2. Demonstration 3. Discussion & practice

5 Teaching aids: 1.1 Lead-in activities In this part, we are going to look at one of the most important components of language teachers' work, lesson planning. It is necessary for us to know the importance of lesson planning Multi-media, whiteboard, Teaching procedures: 1. Why is lesson planning important?

6 1.2 Presentation 1.2.1. Necessity of lesson planning A lesson plan is a framework of a lesson in which teachers make decisions in advance about what techniques, activities and materials will be used in the class. Proper lesson planning is essential for both novice andexperienced teachers. Unprepared teachers receive much less trust and cooperation from the Ss. There is a common misconception that experienced teachers needn’t do lesson planning. Though the contents may be the same, Ss are different, the time is different, so is the mood. experienced teachers also need plan lessons.

7 1.2 Presentation It makes the teacher realize the aims and La. contents of the lesson. It helps the teacher to distinguish the various stages of a lesson and to see the relationship between them so that the lesson can move smoothly from one stage to another. It helps teachers to think about the relative value of different activities and how much time spent on them. By comparing the estimated time with the actual time taken for different types of activity, the teacher soon learns to judge lesson stages and phases with greater accuracy. It is also an aid to continuing improvement. After the lesson the teacher can add an evaluation to the plan. Identifying those parts which went well or less successful. This plan, with the teacher's comments and corrections, provides a useful, time-saving reference when the teacher next plans the same lesson. 1.2.2 What benefit can a La. teacher get from a good lesson planning

8 2. Principles for good lesson planning 2.1 Presentation There are five major principles behind good lesson planning. They are aim, variety, flexibility, learnability, and linkage.

9 2.1 Presentation principles Definition of each principle Aim It means realistic goals for the lesson, Tt have a clear idea of what to achieve or what outcomes are to expected from the lesson Variety It means planning a number of different types of activities so that learning is always interesting, motivating and never monotonous for the Ss Flexibility It means preparing some extra and alternative tasks and activities as the class doesn’t go according to the plan, and teacher can cope with the unexpected situations learnability Contents and tasks should be within the Ss’ learning capability. Linkage The stages and the steps should be linked with one another, transit smoothly

10 2.1 Discussion a. Variety can make learning interesting, motivating and never monotonous for Ss b. Learnability can increase Ss motivation and confidence c. Good linkage makes the lesson transit from one stage to the next smoothly and it can reduce Ss’ anxiety, nervousness 2.1.1 Organize Ss in groups of 4 to discuss the purpose of the five principles. 2.1.2 Ask some Ss to present their results of discussion, then T make some comments on their presentation Examples :

11 3. Macro planning vs. micro planning Ideally, lesson planning should be done at two levels: macro and micro planning. The former is planning over time, for instance, the planning for a month, a term, or the whole course. The latter is planning for a specific lesson, which usually lasts 40 or 50 minutes. Of course, there is no clear-cut difference between these two types of planning. Micro planning should be based on macro planning, and macro planning is apt to be modified as lessons go on. 3.1 Lead-in activities

12 3.2 Presentation Macro planning is not writing lesson plans for specific lessons but rather helping teachers get on an overall feelings or idea about the course. Macro planning involves the following:

13 3.2 Presentation 1). Knowing about the profession: Teachers must know which language areas and skills should be taught or practised in the course, what materials and teaching aids are available, and what methods and techniques can be used. 2) Knowing about the institution: Teachers should get to know the institution's arrangements regarding time, length, frequency of lessons, physical conditions of classrooms, and exam requirements. 3) Knowing about the learners: Teachers should acquire information about the Ss' age range, sex ratio, social background, motivation, attitudes, interests, learning needs and other individual factors.

14 3.2 Presentation 4) Knowing about the syllabus: Teachers should be clear about the purposes, requirements and targets specified in the syllabus. 5) Knowing about the textbook Teachers should know the philosophy of teaching, organization of learning contents, major topics, unit components and ways of assessment. 6). Knowing about the objectives

15 3.3 Summary Macro planning provides general guidance for teachers.Teachers have different personalities and teaching strategies, so it is likely their lesson plans would differ from each other. However,there are certain guidelines that we can follow and certain elements that we can incorporate in our plans to help us create purposeful, interesting and motivating lessons for learners.

16 4. Components of a lesson plan The advantage of a concrete teaching plan is teachers can follow it in the class and check what they have done. The plan will be the basis of a record of what has been covered in class.It will be good records for the entire course. So what does a lesson plan include? 4.1 Lead-in activities

17 4.2 Presentation A language lesson plan usually has the following components: background information, teaching aims, language contents and skills, teaching aids, teaching stages and procedures, end of lesson summary.

18 4.2 Presentation Teachers should acquire information about number of the studentst,their age range, sex ratio, social background, motivation, attitudes, interests, learning needs and other individual factors. 4.2.1. Background information

19 What will students grasp in this class?Three factors should be taken into consideration--- knowledge aim, ability aim, affect aim (知识目标、能力目标和情感 目标) Note: Don’t mix teaching aims with teaching contents, one is what to grasp, the other is what to learn. 4.2.2. Teaching aims & Teaching contents

20 Practice Ask Ss to work in groups and finish the TASK 3 (page56-57) to distinguish the teaching aims and contents, and present the reasons of their choices. Then encourage Ss to write some teaching aims according to the material in TASK 4

21 Practice 1. Ss can introduce themselves in English. 2. Ss are able to find out information about other people in English. 3. Ss can talk confidently and politely with strangers. 4. be capable of reading the passage fluently. Examples:

22 4.2.3 Teaching aids Teaching stages refer to the major chunks of activities that teachers go through in a lesson. It usually includes the following aspects. Teacher should think how to make full use of the aids or resources available 4.2.4 Teaching stages and procedures

23 a. Warm –up /starter TimePurposeForms before the class To create a climate of interaction and involvement songs Review Ss’ prior knowledge daily conversations To inject a sense of pace in the lesson a picture description To create an expectation tell a story Get all Ss quickly on taskhomework checking

24 pre-reading ( preparation work ) while –reading ( activities or tasks that Ss perform while doing their reading) post –reading (a chance for Ss to obtain feedback on their performance at the while –stage) b. For a skill–oriented lesson, teachers can adopt this three stages

25 4.2.5 End of lesson summary It is an important stage for Teachers to take learning further and deeper by helping Ss to refer back to the learning aims.Ss can create a sense of achievement, Teachers can use the time to develop Ss’ habits of reflection on learning; stimulate interest, curiosity and anticipation about the next phase of learning

26 5. Attached Materials: Sample lesson plan 1.Check homework. 2 Sing a song of your choosing lesson plan One ( 初一英语下学期 Lesson 120 教学设计 ) Step 1 Revision,

27 Step 2 Ask and answer SB Page 69, Part 1. Practise in pairs, talking about the people in the pictures. The students should use the model given. Have several pairs volunteer to talk about the pictures for the class. They may ask as many questions as they can, e.g. What (work) does he do? Where does he work? How does he go to work? Does he like his work? What's he doing now? Where's he going?

28 Step 3 Read and write 1.SB page 69, Part 2, Speech Cassette Lesson 120. Students skim the passage for the main idea. (It's Wednesday and people are going to the Great Wall. These people are from many countries.) 2.Play the tape, students listen and repeat. 3. In small groups, hand each group a piece of paper with Now they are getting on a big bus … written at the top of the paper. The first member of the group writes a sentence, and then passes the paper to the right. Then the next student writes a sentence until the last student of the group, who writes the last sentence of the story. The endings do not necessarily have to be logical. They can be just for fun. Have several groups volunteer to read their endings for the class.

29 Step 4 Listen and answer SB Page 70, Part 3, Listening Cassette Lesson 120. Let the students read the passage to be completed in WB Lesson 120, Ex. 2. Ask What does Jim/Li Lei like doing? Play the tape several times if necessary. Do Ex. 2 orally first, then ask the students to fill in the blanks

30 Step 5 Look, ask and write 1. SB Page 70, Part 4*. Read through the business cards together as a class. Using the model given, write about the first business card on the Bb as a class. In pairs, have the students write about the remaining 3 cards. 2.Have Ss individually make their own business cards. Collect them and display them in the class.

31 Step 6 Checkpoint 30 Checkpoint 30 is NOT in the book. You may take this chance to explain the ten parts of speech of English words. Use this time to revise any particular points that your students find difficult. Ask them if they have any questions.

32 Step 7 Workbook SB Pages 152-154, WB Lesson 120, Ex. 1 and 3-5. Do Ex. 1 orally to review the verb tenses taught this year. For Ex. 3 have the students interview another student in the class who they don't usually talk with. Ex. 4 and 5 may be given as homework. Ex. 6 and 7 are optional. Ex. 7 may be used as an acting contest for the last day of class. Homework Finish off the Workbook exercises. Revise all the language items in the SB.

33 5. Attached Materials: Sample lesson plan Lesson plan Two Teaching aims 1. To revise old vocabulary and learn new words about food 2. To talk about likes and dislikes with regard to food 3. To recognize names of different food 4. To use adjectives to describe different tastes Focuses and difficulties 1. Talk about different foods 2. “What food do you like ?” “I like hamburgers.” (dislike, hate) 3. Some adverbs of frequency (always, never, many times a day) Teaching approaches Task-based approach

34 Teaching procedures Step 1 Presentation Help the students to remember the words of food they learned. Present some new words : Step 2Welcome to the unit Part A vocabulary Step 3Comic strip on P.58 1. Play the tape with the questions: 1).Is Eddie always hungry?

35 Teaching procedures Step 4 Welcome to the unit Part B 1. Get Ss to work in groups to make a table and tick on a table by asking: What food do you like/dislike? What food does he/she like? 2. Ask Ss to report their results. 3. If there is time, ask Ss to talk about their family as well. Homewok 1. Revise the words 2. Preview “Reading” 3. Do Exercise A Writing (B) Hamburger hungry What food do you like/dislike? vegetable energy What food does he/she like/dislike? carrot healthy

36 Self-assessment: Because students are not familiar with the English Teaching plan, although it is very easy to help Ss understand it. But they actually don't know how to plan lessons well. It requires T explain it in details with the help of clear illustration and examples by using real examples to make students get more practice and experience.

37 Assignments: 1. Why is lesson planning necessary? 2. What are the principles for good lesson planning? 3.What are the difference between macro planning and micro planning? 4. What are the components of a lesson plan? 5.Choose a lesson in a suitable textbook. Write a lesson plan.

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