Presentation on theme: "TEACHING SPEAKING FOR YOUNG LEARNER"— Presentation transcript:
1 TEACHING SPEAKING FOR YOUNG LEARNER Reza Ajie Saputra
2 TEACHING SPEAKING FOR YOUNG LEARNER Teaching Speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialoguesYoung Learners are individuals of very early age who are interested in many new things such as a foreign language, English.
3 INTRODUCTION DISCUSSION CONCLUSION The meaning of speakingThe difference between knowledge and skillCharacteristics of spoken languageSpontaneityTime-constraintINTRODUCTIONTeaching Speaking For Young LearnersThe BasicsMotivating Students to SpeakStrategies that Encourage ParticipationTechniques to Teach SpeakingDISCUSSIONAdd YourText hereCONCLUSION
4 The meaning of speaking INTRODUCTIONThe meaning of speakingCharacteristic of spoken languageThe Difference Between Knowledge and skillTime-ConstraintsSpontaneity
5 INTRODUCTIONMeaning of Speaking Speaking is "the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts". Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues.
6 INTRODUCTIONCharacteristics of spoken language:Speaking is a skill, just like swimming, driving a car, or playing ping-pong.Too often, in the traditional classroom, the learning of English has been relegated to linguistic knowledge only, e.g. knowledge of vocabulary and grammar rules, with little or no attention paid to practising language skill.
7 INTRODUCTIONSpontaneityIn most situations, people do not plan ahead of time what they are going to say.The fact that speech is spontaneous means that it is full of false starts, repetitions, incomplete sentences, and short phrases.Should we expect the students to produce complete sentences in language classroom?
8 INTRODUCTIONTime-constraintThe students must be able to produce unplanned utterances in real time; otherwise people will not have the patience to listen to them.Which of the following activities do you think would help to prepare students for real life speech in English?
9 INTRODUCTIONMany language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language.Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge:Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary)Functions (transaction and interaction)Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants)
10 DiSCUSSION Teaching Speaking For Young Learners Knowing the Basics Motivating Students to SpeakStrategies That Encourage ParticipationMethod to SpeakingTechnique to Teach Speaking
11 Teaching Speaking For Young Learners DISCUSSIONTeaching Speaking For Young LearnersTeaching speaking for young language learners (YLLs) is an interesting and challenging duty for teachers for some considerations. In one hand, YLLs are individuals of very early age who are interested in many new things such as a foreign language, English. In this level, young learners seem to have the same proficiency in speaking that is novice level. The characteristic of novice level is the students’ ability to communicate minimally with learned material and oral production consists of isolated words and perhaps a few high-frequency phrases essentially no functional communication ability.
12 DISCUSSIONKnowing The Basics Young learners are like sponges, they soak up everything we say and how we say it. Thus clear and correct pronunciation is of vital importance, since young learners repeat exactly what they hear. What has been learned at an early stage is difficult to change later on. One of the rules that apply here is: slowly and steadily, through constant revision and recycling.
13 DISCUSSIONalways strive to achieve a positive and relaxed atmosphere in young learners’ classroom, as this proved a decisive factor in achieving maximum results. With the help of mixed activities, such as dialogues, choral revision, chants, songs, poems and rhymes students’ speaking abilities grow, their pronunciation gets better and their awareness of the language improvesInteraction is an important way of learning. Therefore, increased oral emphasis should be included in our teaching to give the students as much speaking time as possible.
14 Motivating Students to Speak DISCUSSIONMotivating Students to SpeakTo motivate students in EFL contexts, teachers should include many activities and strategies that attract students’ attention and make them interested in the lesson.Activities need to be child centered and communication should be authentic.the teacher should consider in the activities: a focus on meaning and value, not correctness; a focus on collaboration and social development; the provision of a rich context, and teaching the four skills through a variety of activities.
15 Strategies that Encourage Participation DISCUSSIONStrategies that Encourage ParticipationTo motivate students in EFL contexts, teachers should include many activities and strategies that attract students’ attention and make them interested in the lesson.The teacher can use the model for teaching young learners by using IPA (Imitating-Practicing control-Autonomy) as the other strategy. Children love imitating.
16 Method To Teach Speaking DISCUSSIONReadingAloudDoing a drillCommoncharacteristicsin successfulspeaking tasksLearning theDialoguesInterviewingsomeone,or beinginterviewedDesigningUsing group workinSongs, Poems,Rhymesand ChantsMethod To Teach Speaking
17 DISCUSSION Learning the Dialogues Learning dialogues by heart is a definite no-no. It is much better and far more useful to substitute the words so that they are true to students and their world.Student uses his/her own variation, there is an obvious transition from pure imitation to conscious changing, which speeds up remembering and offers varied communicative opportunities.By imitating, sharing and discussing students benefit – modeling, understanding and picking it up seem to be natural..
18 DISCUSSION EXAMPLE : A: What time is it? B: It’s 3:00. Why? A: Oh, I need to go to the store! Do you want to come?B: OK. Just a minute. I need to finish this first.
20 DISCUSSIONSongs, Poems, Rhymes and Chants Using songs, poems, rhymes and chants is a wonderful way of making students sing/talk and at the same time (unconsciously) work at their grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation. Try to include the above-mentioned activities by providing learners with those that require total physical response, shortly known as "TPR".
24 DISCUSSIONReading Aloud Reading aloud will get you used to hearing your own voice and help you become more comfortable with delivering written material orally. It can also help you build your vocabulary so that you will stumble less frequently when speaking unfamiliar words.
25 DISCUSSIONInterviewing someone, or being interviewed It helps to prepare students for real life speech.
26 DISCUSSIONDoing a drill It needs to be supplemented with more realistic activities as the level increase.Also students must consider whom they are talking to and be able to check if they are being understood.
27 Designing speaking tasks and Using group work in speaking tasks DISCUSSIONDesigning speaking tasks andUsing group work in speaking tasksOne important consideration: Proficiency level of the students (challenging but not too difficult.)If the task is too easy or too difficult, the students may be demotivated.Advantages of using group work:More opportunities.More motivation.More authenticity.Different levels.More cooperation.
28 DISCUSSION Techniques to Teach Speaking Information-gap activities (Compare 2 Activities)Activity A
29 DISCUSSIONActivity B Use the same pictures, but cut them up, paste them on cards, and give each student a different picture.
30 DISCUSSION 2. Dialogues and role-plays Example 1: Playing the roles in a dialogueStep 1. Practise the dialogue in pairsA: What time is it?B: It’s 3:00. Why?A: Oh, I need to go to the store! Do you want to come?B: OK. Just a minute. I need to finish this first.Step 2. Ask a few pairs to perform the dialogue in front of the whole class, speaking in different moods such as happy, irritated, bored, or in different role relationships such as parent and a child, husband and wife, two friends, etc.
31 DISCUSSIONFactors that affect the success of role-plays (Ur, 1996:133)Teacher’s enthusiasm;Careful instructions;Clear situation and roles;Making sure that the students have the language they will need to carry out the role-play.
32 DISCUSSION 3. Find Someone who... Find someone who Name likes to swim Stand up and walk around the room. Ask your classmates what they like to do. Remember, you must speak in English only!Find someone whoNamelikes to swimlikes to play basketballlikes to play badmintonlikes to play tennislikes to play football
33 DISCUSSION 4. A model conversation can be provided. A: Hi, Tom. B: Hi, Sherry.A: I’m conducting a survey for our school newspaper. Could you tell me, do you like to swim?B: Yes, I do. In fact, usually go swimming once or twice a week.A: Great. Would you mind signing your name here for me please?B: Sure, there you are.A: thanks a lot. See you around.B: See you.