1 Present structures to learn Present vocabulary Then enable the students to use what they have learned, and Repeatedly practise it, but NOT in mindless repetition! A focus on meaning by using real (or realistic) language for authentic purposes.
Meaning Learner’s history Learner’s needs TV Radio Internet ? Sources
2 Brief explanation on how to drive the car Then let them get in the car and drive it Less emphasis on studying form such as grammar and more on communication
CLT Find someone who Sticker on back Commands Doughnut Recorded questions Role play Many types of simple activity
3 Greet students, complete admin Friendly chat to start Brief explanation and presentation Then they should be talking. Less talk by the teacher and lots of opportunity to practise with other learners
Interaction 1 TWhat would you do if they refused to replace the item? L(Silence) TWould you just say Ok and leave? LUm … TDo you think you should say you want it replaced? LYes TOK, so you’d insist on getting it replaced? LYes
Interaction 2 TWhat would you do if they refused to replace the item? L(Silence) T(Silence) LI say they must replace. TOK. I’m the shopkeeper. What will you say to me? LIt doesn’t work. I want replace. T Yes, that’s good
4 For each activity, ask Does it involve meaning? Does it engage the brain? Is it interesting? Does it relate to real life? The learner must consciously process language to learn it.
NOT Change the following words into the plural: One boat, two.................. One cat, two.................... One house, two................. Presentation activities
BUT Change the means of communication, eg Listen and draw Read and report Observe and explain Set an outcome, eg Pairs solve a puzzle Groups discuss priorities Engage the brain
5 Know your learners Allow them to negotiate meaning Challenge them to respond Challenge them to initiate You are not the fount of all knowledge A focus on the learner’s needs and their contribution to the learning process
6 Plan the lesson according to learner needs Manage the class to give everyone a chance But hand over tasks to individual and groups to work on in their own way The teacher’s role: planning and facilitating rather than directing.
Warning 1 Do not move from presentation to “have a conversation” which is well beyond students’ ability. Use guided conversation CLT ≠ Free conversation
Warning 2 All teaching involves communication CLT involves structured learning through planned communication CLT ≠ Communication