Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Listening for intermediate level learners Helgesen, M. & Brown, S. (2007). Listening [w/CD]. McGraw-Hill: New York."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 Listening for intermediate level learners Helgesen, M. & Brown, S. (2007). Listening [w/CD]. McGraw-Hill: New York.
ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines Summaries of all ACTFL Proficiency Guidelinesall ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines This book discusses listening for novice, intermediate, and advanced proficiency language learners. This chapter focuses on intermediate learners.
Intermediate Learners Able to understand: – Content about personal background and needs. – Sentences that are combinations of phrases already learned. – Everyday situations. – Short telephone conversations, simple announcements, and some news reports.
Gauging Difficulty Text Task Speaker Listener
Text Parts of Language – Speech rate, pausing, unfamiliar words, unfamiliar pronunciation of known words, unfamiliar intonation of sentences, unfamiliar grammatical structures. Usage of Language – Lack of familiarity with the way language is used. Problems with functional language like apologizing or requesting. Lack of familiarity with conventions of direct and indirect speech. Amount of Language – Too little or too much information in the text. Redundancy can make understanding easier, but can also put an additional load on the listener. Organization – Learners may have difficulties if the text is organized in unfamiliar ways or uses flashbacks, extra comments not related t the main idea, etc… Content – Familiar content and vocabulary is easier. Amount of Context – Knowing the context surrounding the text makes it easier (what preceded it, relationship of speakers, culture, etc.) Kind of Text – Stories (linear texts) are easier than debates or other non-linear texts.
Text Planning Preteach key vocabulary. Modify the script to make the language easier or more difficult. Preview the content before the listening. Give additional information after the listening. Group discussion on the topic at hand.
Task Complexity of the task – Fewer demands on knowledge and memory. Breaking large tasks into smaller, more manageable tasks. Level of response required – Checklist is easier than a written response. Summary is easier than providing details. Level of participation – Interactive/on line or non-participant listener/recording. Knowledge of the content and procedure of the task – Familiar topics and tasks are easier. Level of support/context – Scaffolding can make tasks easier. Response time – Time between listening and response/activity.
Task Planning Write a list of key words on the board Use pictures Add TPR or other not vocal action. Provide the script
Speaker Style – Unique/unfamiliar style of speech Accent – Unfamiliar accent Number of Speakers – Multiple speakers are often more difficult than a single speaker. Recorded or Not – Benefits and drawbacks of using recording vs. real speakers and vice versa.
Speaker Planning Add or remove speakers from the listening. Pause to allow for reflection. Read the script (familiar teacher voice) Replay the recording as much as needed.
Listener Proficiency level – Advance understand better than beginners. Interest and motivation – The more interesting, the more/better one is likely to listen. Confidence – Confidence high = better performance than confidence low.
Listener Planning Provide multiple venues for responses: speaking, acting out, drawing, writing, etc. Share the task with group work. Do a “microtask” before the main task. Something that can prepare learners for the main task.
Listening Strategies Predicting: try to predict what will happen before listening and during listening Inferencing: try to think about what the speaker means beyond the literal meaning of the text. Monitoring: think about what you do and do not understand while listening. Clarifying: Ask questions when you don’t fully understand. Responding: React to what the speaker is saying. Evaluating: Think about how successful you were in the completed listening task. P for examples of these strategies in classroom practice
Acquisition vs. Learning Acquisition is the unconscious ability to understand and use the language. (first language) Learning is the conscious attempt to understand and use the language Focus on Form is the use of activities to implicitly highlight language forms. – Particularly important at the intermediate level when learners have enough understanding of the language for meaning, but can benefit from noticing the difference between what they hear and what was actually said.
Where to Put Listening in a Lesson Beginning of the lesson Middle of the lesson End of the lesson
Listening at the beginning of the lesson Provides input needed for language learning. – Background information – Topic introduction – Motivation Practice hearing the language before requiring students to produce it. – PPP (Presentation, Practice, Production) Not a great approach, but popular
Listening in the middle of the lesson Beginning is a good time to build a need for input provided by listening. First communication, then a focus on form Task-based learning
Listening at the end of the lesson Review Task recycling – Repeat the same task to increase practice, retention, and performance
Assessing intermediate learners In addition to those discussed in chapter 2 Self-assessment – Assessment in terms of what one can do (functional language) – Surveys, journals, journals, learning logs Communicative tests – Authentic interactions – Jigsaw listening, group-work, Performance-based testing – Very similar to communicative tests – Performance-based testing is direct, whereas communicative tests are indirect. Difference between evaluation and assessment – Evaluation is broad array of measures – Assessment is a single on of the measures