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Brain Tumors Ariana Munoz, Grace Klinger, Madison Proctor.

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1 Brain Tumors Ariana Munoz, Grace Klinger, Madison Proctor

2 What is it? There are two types of brain cancer; o primary in which the cancer starts in the brain o metastatic in which the cancer starts somewhere else and spreads to the brain Cancer is when the cells begin to divide and multiply uncontrollably damaging the body.

3 What Causes it? Individuals with a job in an oil refinery, handlers of jet fuel or other chemicals, or rubber industry workers, show higher rates of brain cancer than the general population. Smoking, Radiation exposure, and viral infection (HIV) have been suggested but not proven to cause brain cancer. Although many lay press and web articles claim that aspartame (artificial sweetener) causes brain cancer, the FDA maintains that it does not cause brain cancer.

4 Symptoms? Headaches, usually worse in the morning Nausea and vomiting Changes in your ability to talk, hear or see Problems with balance or walking Problems with thinking or memory Muscle jerking or twitching Numbness or tingling in arms or legs

5 Stages of Brain Tumors T he brain cancer has four stages or grades. Grade I: The tissue is benign. The cells look nearly like normal brain cells, and they grow slowly. In this grade, the treatment to remove the brain tumor will most likely be surgery. Mainly because the cancer is not spread out. Some benign tumors will not lead to cancer but it is important to remove them because as they grow, they destroy and compress brain tissue. Grade II: The tissue is malignant. The cells look a little more abnormal than in Grade I and have a greater chance of spreading. Grade III: The malignant tissue has cells that look very different from normal cells. The abnormal cells are actively growing Grade IV: The malignant tissue has cells that look most abnormal and tend to grow quickly. * A malignant grade tumor will result to chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment. These are usually more effective because cancer is already spreading. Malignant grades will cause stronger symptoms than benign grade.

6 Effects When treating Brain Cancer, the treatments can cause many problems like: o nausea, fatigue, hair loss, infertility, and appetite problems Most of the symptoms are the effects of brain cancer. o Headaches, Nausea and vomiting,Changes in your ability to talk, hear or see, Problems with balance or walking, with thinking or memory,Muscle jerking or twitching, Numbness or tingling in arms or legs One serious effect is possibly death

7 Treatments There are three possible treatments for brain tumor: 1. surgery - The surgeon makes an incision in the scalp and uses a special saw to remove a bone from the skull. The surgeon will remove as much tumor as possible. When the process is done, he covers the opening in the skull and closes the incision. Surgery is not always possible. If the cancer is spread in delicate parts, it is most likely to receive one of the therapies. This treatment is usually effective in the benign grade rather than the malignant grades. 2. radiation therapy - External beams of x-rays, gamma rays and protons aimed at the tumor to shrink it and kill cancer cells. 3. chemotherapy - Involves the use of drugs or other chemicals to kill or alter cancer cells. Not all types of brain tumor respond to this treatment. This is usually effective in the malignant grades, rather than the benign one. *The choice of treatment depends mainly in the grade, location and size of the tumor.

8 Cure? There is no definite or immediate cure for brain cancer. However, there is treatment and it usually helps a lot. If the treatment is effective enough, it can kill the cancer cells. There is no guarantee that the cancer cells are gone. For that reason, the patient will have to keep visiting a neurologist or other specialized doctor and continuously test for any cancer cells that may grow again.

9 Prevention? There is nothing you can do to guarantee you won't get cancer although several things help including o Eat a healthy diet o Avoid excessive exposure to chemicals and radiation o Visit your doctor regularly Smoking leads to cancer of the lungs which can spread to your brain so don't smoke Alcohol abuse can lead to liver cancer which again can spread to the brain Basically the best way to avoid brain cancer is to live a healthy life.

10 Other info Estimated new cases and deaths from brain and other nervous system cancers in the United States in 2012: o New Cases: 22910 o Deaths 13700 Each year 4,200 more children are diagnosed with a pediatric brain tumor in the U.S. There are over 150 different types of documented tumors

11 Support Groups There are online, telephone, and face to face support groups available for people whose lives have been affected by cancer There are lots of programs out there for all people touched by cancer you can look for help through o cancer support community o national brain tumor society o imerman angels o american cancer society o Y-me

12 Sources updated.html Helpline.html mors.aspx

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