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1 Vinni Swad Zander Thompson Lung CancerVinni SwadZander Thompson
2 FactsLung cancer is the number one cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the U.S. and worldwide.Cigarette smoking is the principal risk factor for development of lung cancer.Repeated exposure to cigarette smoke can lead to lung cancer.
4 TypesThe two types of lung cancer, which grow and spread differently, are the small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).
5 NSCLCAccording to the American Cancer Society, approximately percent of lung cancer cases are NSCLC. There are three types of NSCLC.
6 NSCLC – Type OneAdenocarcinoma is a slow growing lung cancer usually discovered in an outer area of the lung, often before it has a chance to spread. It occurs mostly in smokers, but is the most common form of lung cancer in non-smokers as well.
7 NSCLC – Type Two & ThreeSquamous cell carcinoma generally occurs in the center of the lung. It tends to develop in smokers.Large cell carcinoma occurs anywhere in the lung, and usually grows and spreads at a rapid rate.
8 SCLCSCLC usually starts near the center of the chest in the bronchi. It is a fast-growing form of cancer that tends to spread in its early stages. SCLC is rare in non-smokers, and tends to grow and spread much faster than NSCLC.
10 Symptoms of Lung Cancer Lung cancers often have either no early symptoms or nonspecific early symptoms that people often overlook. Early nonspecific symptoms may include the following:Cough (chronic)FatigueWeight lossShort of breath or wheezingCoughing up phlegm that contains bloodChest pain
11 Causes of Lung CancerCurrently about 90% of all lung cancers are related to smoking. Radon gas, pollution, toxins, and other factors contribute to the remaining 10%.Lung Cancer became prominent when the invention of the cigarette roller came about and made tobacco cheaper and more easily accessed.
12 Causes ContinuedCigarettes and cigarette smoke contains over 70 cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens). In addition, cigarette smoke damages and can kill hair-like projections on airway cells called cilia. The cilia normally sweep out toxins, carcinogens, viruses, and bacteria. When the cilia are damaged or destroyed by smoke, they can no longer protect the lungs and thus cancer and infection arises.
13 Stages Of Lung CancerStaging defines the extent of the cancer and helps determine the appropriate treatment strategy.Stages range from one to four and depend on factors like the size of the primary tumor, whether it has spread to nearby tissues, and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other organs in the body.
14 DefiningAfter defining which type of Cancer the patient has, the doctor will assign it a stage and then go from there.Stages for non-small cell cancers are different from small cell cancers. The stages listed below are taken from the National Cancer Institute’s lung cancer staging information:
15 SCLC The following two stages are used for small cell lung cancer: Limited-stageextensive-stage small cell cancer.
16 NSCLC Occult (hidden) stage Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ) Stage I Stage IIStage IIIAStage IIIBStage IV
18 PrognosisAccording to the American Cancer Society, five-year survival rates for stage one NSCLC are as high as 49 percent. That rate drops to 30 percent for stage two. The survival rate is 14 percent for stage three, and one percent for late-stage cancer.SCLC: The overall rate of both limited-stage and extensive-stage is about 6%.
19 Diagnostic TestsAfter lung cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the lungs or to other parts of the body.
20 Types of Tests MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) CT scan (CAT scan) PET scan (positron emission tomography scan)Radionuclide bone scanPulmonary function test (PFT)Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)Mediastinoscopy
21 Early Stage TreatmentEarly stage (stage 0 - stage I) cancer treatment of non-small cell cancer may help by surgery. Part or all of a lung segment that contains the cancer may be remove. In some individuals, this may result in a cure. However, many patients still undergo chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both to kill any cancer cells not removed by surgery. That being said, not many cases are caught this early.
22 Late Stage TreatmentEven if you have a later stage NSCLC, you still have treatment options. If the cancer has spread to other parts of your body, or if you’re not healthy enough for surgery, chemotherapy can help slow or stop the growth of cancer cells.Radiation is another option for treating tumors that can’t be removed by surgury. It involves targeting tumors with high-energy radiation to shrink or eliminate them.