2 Skills ApproachLike the Trait Approach, the skills approach focuses on the leader.Examines skills and abilities instead of fixed personality traits.Skills and abilities can be learned therefore leadership can be learned.How is this different than the trait approach?
3 Three Skill ApproachEffective leadership is the result of three skills.TechnicalHumanConceptual
4 Three Skill Approach – Technical Skill Knowledge or ability in a type of work or activity.Involves an ability to use tools and techniques.Working with thingsEx. Knowing how to program in a software company.
5 Three Skill Approach – Technical Skill Most important at lower and mid level management/leadership positions.Less important in top level management/leaders.Top level leaders have to focus on other tasks and let others do technical operations.
6 Three Skill Approach – Human Skill Human skill is knowledge about and ability to work with people.Help a leader work with subordinates, peers, and superiors to achieve common goals.
7 Three Skills Approach – Human Skill Being aware of the perspective of others on issues.Involves creating an atmosphere of trust where employees can feel comfortable and secure.Encourage others to become involved in planning.Addresses the needs and motivations of others.Human skill must be at all levels of a group.
8 Three Skills Approach – Conceptual Skill Ability to work with ideasTechnical = thingsHuman = peopleConceptual = ideas
9 Three Skill Approach - Conceptual Leader would be comfortable working with ideas which shape the group’s future.Create goals, and visions for the group.Can figure out paths to accomplish goals and tackle challenges.
10 Three Skills Approach – Conceptual Most important at the top level of a group structure.When leaders do not have conceptual skill they jeopardize the entire groups chances at success.Not needed at the bottom level of a group.
11 Abilities by Leadership Level HumanTop LevelLeaderConceptualtechnicalMid levelLeaderTechnicalHumanConceptualTechnicalHumanBottom LevelLeaderConceptual
12 Analyzing a StructureAnalyze the structure of a group or organization that you are part of.How is the organization structured I.E Leader, mid management, bottom level workers.What technical, human and conceptual skills are needed at each level?
13 Skills ModelDeveloped out of the U.S. military to answer what specific skills do high performing leaders have?Analyzes the relationship between a leader’s knowledge and skills and the leader’s performance.Three main components of the skills model areIndividual AttributesCompetenciesLeadership Outcomes
14 Individual Attributes – General Cognitive Ability General Cognitive Ability – ability to process info, reason, think creatively, and memorize.These are traits you are born with.Increase to early adulthood then decline.
15 Individual Attributes – Crystalized Cognitive Ability Intellectual ability that is learned over time.Attained through experienceOnly increases with ageSocial judgement skills, problem solving skills, comprehension
16 Individual Attributes - Motivation Leaders must be willing to to take on challengesLeaders must be willing to express dominance and take charge of a groupLeader must be committed to the social good of the group to do what is best or right.
17 Individual Attributes - Personality Important personality traits which help develop leadership.Open-mindedness, curiosity, determination, toleranceAny trait which helps a person deal with challenges.
19 Competencies – Problem-Solving Skills Problem-solving skills are a leader’s creative ability to solve new and ill defined organizational problems.Defining the problemGather infoUnderstand the problemFormulate plan
20 Competencies – Social Judgment Skill Perspective taking – understanding the attitudes or point of view of othersSocial Perceptiveness – How others function? What motivates them? How will they react?Social Performance – ability to make others see things your way. Persuasion of others, being a mediator in conflict. Convincing others to follow your lead.
21 Competencies - Knowledge Knowledge is the application of problem-solving skills.Ability to know how to tackle a complex problem based on relating it to similar experience.Allows leaders to develop plans based on their expertise in a given area.
22 Leadership OutcomesEffective Problem Solving – competency in problem solving leads to a result of good problem solving.Good Problem solving involves solutions that are logical, effective, and unique.Performance – Degree to which a leader meets expected duties.
23 Career ExperiencesCareer experiences moves people from individual attributes to Competencies.Through practice leaders become competent.Leadership is learned
24 Environmental Influences Environmental factors are things which are out of the control of the leader.Environmental factors influence possible solutions.Aging technology, low skilled team members, lack of money, may be things which are not controllable.
25 The Skills Model Individual Attributes Competencies General Cognitive AbilityCrystalized Cognitive AbilityMotivationPersonalityProblem Solving SkillsSocial Judgment SkillsKnowledgeEffective Leadership