Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction: The Nature of Leadership.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction: The Nature of Leadership."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction: The Nature of Leadership

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-2 Learning Objectives Understand why leadership has been defined in so many different ways Understand how leadership will be defined in this book Understand the controversy about differences between leadership and management Understand why it is so difficult to assess leadership effectiveness

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-3 Learning Objectives (Cont.) Understand the different indicators used to assess leadership effectiveness Understand what aspects of leadership have been studied the most during the past 50 years Understand how leadership can be described as an individual, dyadic, group, or organizational process Understand the organization of this book

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-4 Defining Leadership “ There are almost as many definitions of Leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept.” (Stogdill, 1974)

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-5 Definitions of Leadership

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-6 Additional Controversy Specialized role or shared influence process Type of influence process Purpose of influence attempts Influence based on reason or emotions Direct versus indirect leadership Leadership versus management

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-7 Specialized Role or Shared Influence Process Specialized Role Specific leadership role – some functions cannot be shared Leaders and followers Shared Influence Process Naturally occurring Any member can be a leader at any time

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-8 Type of Influence Process Leadership only occurs when influence attempts results in enthusiastic commitment All types of influence need to be examined – even when forcing or manipulating subordinates

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-9 Purpose of Influence Attempts Leadership occurs only when people are influenced to do what is ethical and consistent with organizational goals Look at outcome of the influence attempts and not necessarily the leader’s intended purpose

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-10 Influence Based on Reason or Emotion Traditional definitions of leadership emphasize rational, cognitive processes Recent views of leadership emphasize emotional aspects of influence

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-11 Leadership vs. Management Leaders and managers are completely different and mutually exclusive Managers are concerned with doing things right (efficiency) Leaders are concerned with doing the right things (effectiveness)

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-12 Leadership vs. Management (Cont.) Leaders and managers are different roles but don’t have to be different types of people Mintzberg’s 10 leadership roles Kotter differentiating between managers and leaders in terms of core processes and intended outcomes Rost view of management as an authority relationship and leadership as a multidirectional influence relationship

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-13 Direct vs. Indirect Leadership Direct leadership Leader’s direct influence on immediate subordinates Leader’s direct influence on lower-level employees, peers, bosses, or outsiders Indirect leadership Cascading effect of leadership influence Influence over formal programs, management systems, and structural forms Influence over organizational culture

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-14 A Working Definition of Leadership “Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives.”

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-15 What Leaders Can Influence

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-16 Indicators of Leadership Effectiveness Performance and growth of leader’s group or organization Follower attitudes and perceptions of the leader Leader’s contribution to the quality of group processes Extent to which a person has a successful career as a leader Development of a composite measure

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-17 Immediate and Delayed Outcomes Immediate outcomes easy to measure Willingness to complete a project Delayed outcomes difficult to assess Influenced by extraneous events Leader can effect both immediate and delayed outcomes May be inconsistent and move in opposite directions

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-18 Leadership Causal Chain Causal Chain of Effects from Two Types of Leader Behavior

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-19 Key Variables in Leadership Theories Characteristics of the Leader Characteristics of the Follower Characteristics of the Situation

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-20 Characteristics of the Leader Traits (motives, personality, values) Confidence and optimism Skills and expertise Behavior Integrity (honesty, behavior consistent with values) Influence tactics Attributions about followers

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-21 Characteristics of the Follower Traits (needs, values, self concepts) Confidence and optimism Skills and expertise Attributions about the leader Trust in the leader Task commitment and effort Satisfaction with job and leader

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-22 Characteristics of the Situation Type of organizational unit Size of unit Position power and authority of leader Task structure and complexity Task interdependence Environmental uncertainty External dependencies National cultural values

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-23 Causal Relationship Between Key Variables Causal Relationships Among the Primary Types of Leadership Processes

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-24 Overview of Major Research Approaches Trait approach Behavior approach Power-influence approach Situational approach Integrative approach

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-25 Level of Conceptualization for Leadership Figure: Levels of Conceptualization for Leadership Processes

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-26 Intra-Individual Theories How leaders manage their time How leader traits and values influence leadership behavior How leader skills are related to leader behavior How leaders make decisions Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-27 Intra-Individual Theories (Cont.) How leaders are influenced by role expectations and constraints How leaders react to feedback and learn from experience How leaders can use self-management techniques How leaders can use self-development techniques Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-28 Dyadic Theories How a leader influences subordinate motivation and task commitment How a leader facilitates the work of a subordinate How a leader interprets information about a subordinate How a leader develops a subordinate’s skills and confidence Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-29 Dyadic Theories (Cont.) How a leader influences subordinate loyalty and trust How a leader uses influence tactics with a subordinate, peer, or boss How a leader and a subordinate influence each other How a leader develops a cooperative exchange relationship with a subordinate Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-30 Group-Level Theories How different leader-member relations affect each other and team performance How leadership is shared in the group or team How leaders organize and coordinate the activities of team members How leaders influence cooperation and resolve disagreements in the team or unit Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-31 Group-Level Theories (Cont.) How leaders influence collective efficacy and optimism for the team or unit How leaders influence collective learning and innovation in the team or unit How leaders influence collective identification of members with the team or unit How unit leaders obtain resources and support from the organization and other units Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-32 Organization-Level Theories How top executives influence lower-level members How leaders are selected at each level (and implications of process for the firm) How leaders influence organizational culture How leaders influence the efficiency and the cost of internal operations Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-33 Organization-Level Theories (Cont.) How leaders influence human relations and human capital in the organization How leaders make decisions about competitive strategy and external initiatives How conflicts among leaders are resolved in an organization How leaders influence innovation and major change in an organization Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-34 Level of Conceptualization for Leadership Intra-individual process – focuses on processes within a single individual Dyadic process – focuses on the relationship between a leader and another individual Group process – focuses on the leadership role in a task group and how a leader contributes to group effectiveness Organizational process – focuses on leadership as a process that occurs in a larger open system in which groups are a subsystem Multi-level theories – include constructs from more than one level of explanation

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-35 Other Bases for Comparing Leadership Theories Leader vs. Follower-Centered Theory Descriptive vs. Prescriptive Theory Universal vs. Contingency Theory

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-36 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


Download ppt "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction: The Nature of Leadership."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google