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Learning Theories, Models, and Methods

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Theories, Models, and Methods"— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Theories, Models, and Methods
A GILD Tutorial Presenter: M.E. Sanseverino Jan 22, 2003 "Aah, there's nothing more exciting than science. You get all the fun of sitting still, being quiet, writing down numbers, paying attention...yes, science has it all." Principal Skinner

2 Tutorial Goals 2. MODELS 1. THEORIES 3. METHODS Segue to

3 1.1 Theories: Behavioural
Primary Focus Observable behaviour Stimulus-response connections Assumptions Learning is a result of environmental forces Subcategories Contiguity Respondent (Classical) Operant (Instrumental) Major Theorists Thorndike Pavlov Watson Skinner Principles Time/place pairings Biological basis of behaviour Consequences Modelling

4 1.1.1 Behavioural: Subcategories
Contiguity Stimulus and response connected and associated in time and space Example: The “Lucky Bathrobe”. Respondent or Classical Conditioning We make associations with stimuli Example: The Pavlov Dog. Operant or Instrumental Conditioning Learning is the result of the application of consequences; that is, learners begin to connect certain responses with certain stimuli. Examples: Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement

5 2.1 Models: Pavlov’s Dog From W. Huitt and J. Hummel

6 1.2 Theories: Cognitive Primary Focus Major Theorists Assumptions
Mental behaviour Knowledge Intelligence Critical Thinking Assumptions Learning is a result of mental operations/ processing Subcategories Information Processing Hierarchical Developmental Major Theorists Bloom Piaget Gagne Principles Memory is limited Changes in complexity Changes over time Good thinking requires standards

7 1.2.1 Cognitive Subcategories
Information Processing study of the structure and function of mental processing within specific contexts, environments, or ecologies . Example: Stage Model of Information Processing Hierarchical The classification of educational goals and objectives Example: Bloom’s Taxonomy Developmental stages in cognitive development Example: Piaget Critical Thinking How we apply our cognitive processes to evaluating arguments (propositions) and making decisions Examples: Thinking to a standard. Critical Thinking Model

8 2.2.1 Models: Information Processing
From Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968).

9 2.2.2 Models: Bloom’s Taxonomy
From W. Huitt and J. Hummel

10 2.2.3 Models: Thinking to a Standard
CLARITY: Could you elaborate further on that point? ACCURACY: Is that really true? PRECISION: Could you give more details? DEPTH: How does the answer address the complexities in the question? RELEVANCE: How is that connected to the question? BREADTH: Do we need to consider another point of view? LOGIC: Does this really make sense? From Linda Elder and Richard Paul

11 2.2.4 Models: Critical Thinking Model
From W. Huitt and J. Hummel

12 2.2.5 Piaget’s Model of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor stage (Infancy). Pre-operational stage (Toddler and Early Childhood) Use of symbols, language use matures, memory and imagination are developed, thinking is nonlogical, nonreversable. Concrete operational stage (Elementary and early adolescence). Intelligence demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Formal operational stage (Adolescence and adulthood). Intelligence demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. From W. Huitt and J. Hummel

13 1.3 Theories: Humanistic Primary Focus Major Theorists Assumptions
Affect/Values Self-Concept/Self-Esteem Needs Assumptions Learning is a result of affect/emotion and goal-orientation Subcategories Affect Motivation/Needs Self-concept Self-esteem Major Theorists Rogers Maslow N. V. Peale Principles Individual uniqueness Self-determination Dreams and goals are vital for success

14 1.3.1 Humanistic Subcategories
Affect The affective/emotional system colours, embellishes, diminishes or otherwise modifies information processed by people. Example: The Affective Domain Self-Concept Ideal Self Perceived Self Real Self Motivation/Needs What needs motivate us to act? Example: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Esteem Basic faith in oneself as being growth-directed and positively oriented. Individuals cannot progress because they do not have faith in their ability to solve problems or to accurately experience the here-and-now.

15 2.3.1 Models: The Affective Domain
Adapted from: Krathwohl, D., Bloom, B., & Masia, B. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay.

16 2.3.2 Models: Maslow’s Hierarchy
Source: William G. Huitt,

17 1.4 Theories: Social Cognition
Primary Focus Modelling Vicarious Learning Attitudes Goals Assumptions Learning is a result of influences of social environment on thinking. Subcategories Observational (Social) Self-efficacy Goal-setting Self-regulation Major Theorists Bandura Vygotsky Sears Principles Reciprocal determinism Individual responsibility

18 1.4.1 Social Cognition Subcategories
Observational (Social) Observational learning - vicarious learning Imitating/modelling behaviour of those they admire Self-efficacy Belief in one's capabilities to organise and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations Self-Regulation and Goal-setting setting goals for upgrading knowledge; deliberating about strategies to select those that balance progress toward goals against unwanted costs; monitoring the accumulating effects of such engagement. Example: Self-regulating model

19 2.4.1 Models: Self-Regulation
LEARNER Plan to achieve goal Tasks + confidence - confidence Problem Quit What must I do to achieve goal Plan is modified Goal is changed GOAL From Carver and Scheier (1990)

20 3. Methods: Putting theories and models together
Adapted from Romiszowski, 1984

21 3.1 Methods: How do you think?
The Block Problem: Visualisation Draw a picture Mathematically How did you do it? Were you successful on the first or second attempt? Did you use more than one strategy? (ie. Visualise and deduce that blocks have eight corners)

22 3.1 Methods: How do you think?
The Sticks Problem: Visualising Drawing Manipulating Objects If you manipulate objects: Be aware of how it feels to do solve the problem this way. Are you carrying on a verbal dialogue (verbalizing)? .

23 3.1 Methods: How do you think?
The Who Did It problem: In this problem only one statement is true. Determine from the information given who did it? A said, "B did it." B said, "D did it." C said, "I did not do it." D said, "B lied when he said I did it." Verbal/Logical solution Easy to confuse the information statement with the problem statement: Many learners try to figure out which statement is a true, rather than which person is guilty.

24 3.1 Methods: How do you think?
The Who Did It problem continued: If you noticed that since only one statement is true and C says that he didn't do it, one need only discover that one of A, B, or D is telling the truth to establish that C is guilty (if A, B, or D is true, C is false; thus C did it). Since B and D contradict each other, only one of them can be true. Since we've found one true statement (it doesn't matter whether it's B or D), we can deduce that C did it. (A more efficient, but often overlooked strategy). Begin by assuming A is guilty, determine if it is the case that only one statement is true, then assume B is guilty, and so on until you find that only one statement is true. (This method is most common for those who do solve the problem, and will result in a correct answer)

25 3.2 Methods: Determining Your Learning Styles
Principles of Thinking Styles ACTIVE AND REFLECTIVE LEARNERS How can active learners help themselves? How can reflective learners help themselves? SENSING AND INTUITIVE LEARNERS How can sensing learners help themselves? How can intuitive learners help themselves? VISUAL AND VERBAL LEARNERS How can visual learners help themselves? How can verbal learners help themselves? SEQUENTIAL AND GLOBAL LEARNERS How can sequential learners help themselves? How can global learners help themselves?

26 3.2.1 Principals of Thinking Styles
Styles can vary across the life span. Styles are measurable. Styles are teachable. Styles valued at one time may not be valued at another. Styles valued in one place may not be valued in another. Styles, on average, are not good or bad -- it's a question of fit. We confuse stylistic fit with levels of ability. People differ in there stylistic flexibility. Styles are preferences in the use of abilities, not abilities themselves. A match between styles and abilities creates synergy that is more than the sum of its parts. Life choices need to fit styles as well as abilities. People have profiles (or patterns) of styles, not just a single style. Styles are variable across tasks and situations. People differ in the strength of their preferences. Styles are socialised.

27 4.0 Scenario GOALS WHY ACTIVITY Explain/understand why repetition is
needed. To put the problem in some context. Students comprehend problem. Students write a program without a repetition structure. KNOWLEDGE Demo/explain different repetition structures. To put structures in a more defined context. Give a problem. Ask students to code it in all repetition types. APPLICATION Discuss why and when one structure might be more appropriate than another. To get the students thinking of these structures in terms of problem solving. Give a problem. Ask students to select structure and justify choice. EVALUATION Have students learn debugging strategies using repetition as a catalyst. To develop debugging /logical problem solving strategies. Have an in-class find and fix competition. Logical errors, syntax, and run-time. ANALYSIS

28 Bibliography Educational Psychology Interactive < Valdosta State University, Georgia, USA. Recommended for GILD members Looking at Carl Rogers (Humanistic Theory) < Learning to Learn < Recommended for GILD members The Next Step Teacher Education < Theory into Practice: TIP < Resources in Science and Engineering Education < Recommended for GILD members

29 Bibliography cont. How People Learn, Expanded Edition John Bransford et al Full book online at < Recommended for GILD members -- if you can only fit in one item on learning, make it this book. It blends theory and practice into a very readable, useable resource. Funderstanding: educational products for kids. < Great Expectations: Leveraging America's Investment in Educational Technology < Integrating Technology in Learning and Teaching. Pat Maier and Adam Warren. Kogan Page Limited, London, UK

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