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Principles of Teaching And Learning Exploring Pedagogy, Curriculum, Instruction Collin College EDUC 1301 Chapter 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Teaching And Learning Exploring Pedagogy, Curriculum, Instruction Collin College EDUC 1301 Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Teaching And Learning Exploring Pedagogy, Curriculum, Instruction Collin College EDUC 1301 Chapter 4

2 4 |  Pedagogy: Art and science of teaching – your personal teaching philosophy Beliefs, knowledge, orientation Subtext that informs your teaching  Instruction: The act of teaching  Learning theory: How learning happens and conditions that favor its occurrence

3 4 |  Learning is a response to reinforcements (“stimuli”) from outer environment  All behavior is learned in steps  Operant conditioning: Behavior learned because of its consequences (reward or punishment) A.k.a. “shaping” or “behavior modification”  Theorist: B.F. Skinner

4 4 |  Teacher strictly controls environment Focus on observable behaviors Lesson based on clear objectives Reinforce each step toward goal Favor positive reinforcements (rewards)  Criticisms: Students less engaged Too much bribery, too much control Students learn facts, not concepts

5 4 |  Focus on thought processes that accompany learning  Learning via student’s creation of knowledge  Stages of cognitive development (Jean Piaget): Intellectual growth occurs in stages marked by different thinking abilities- ALL ages are approximate Sensorimotor stage (18 months-2 yrs. old): Learning via sensory impressions, movement Preoperational stage (2-7 yrs. old): Learn words, symbols Concrete operational stage (7-11 yrs. old): Generalize concepts from concrete experiences Formal operational stage (11+ yrs. old): Think in abstractions

6 4 |  Piaget: Match type of learning to stage of cognitive development  Jerome Bruner: Let students discover ideas on their own (“discovery learning”)  Criticisms: Children can be in several stages at once Stages cannot easily be linked to certain ages Didn’t account for learner’s social contexts

7 4 |  Learning is interaction between learner’s mental processes & social environment Context influences the ideas we develop  Theorist: Lev Vygotsky  Social cognitive learning in the classroom: Teacher models behavior, students observe Students solve problems in groups

8 4 |  Several related theories: Real learning = making information your own Knowledge is built by learners through real- world experience New ideas integrated with prior knowledge Learning occurs incrementally and via leaps We understand life using personal mental schemes (framework for ideas)  Theorists: John Dewey, Carl Rogers

9 4 |  Based on students’ existing ideas, knowledge, skills, attitudes (foundation)  Lesson builds on foundation, then challenges it to make students rethink their schemes  To correct wrong ideas, present contradictory information so student must wrestle with the concept and come to understand the accurate idea  Students need multiple opportunities to learn concepts

10 4 |  A Course of study describing what to teach, and how…………… Typically organized by content area for each grade level Official plan = Formal curriculum Established by state  Informal curriculum: Spontaneous learning experiences that link academic concept to students’ daily lives

11 4 | How are most curricula developed? – Many states build on national content area standards – School (or district) curricula based on state curricula NCLB has reduced local control, innovation – Pressure to adopt uniform state curricula “that work” – Teachers rush to “cover the curriculum” – If it’s not on the test, it may not be taught – Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills –

12 4 |  Ideally, curriculum is both a: Window into new ideas, worlds Mirror of students’ realities  Interests, concerns, beliefs  Talents and challenges  Family and social networks  Activities (hobbies, jobs, household duties)  A curriculum that’s relevant will seem meaningful and motivate learning

13 4 |  Student performs meaningful real-world task to show understanding A.k.a. “performance assessment”  Common evaluative tools used with this approach: Checklists, rubrics Rubric: Scoring guide including criteria for judging quality of student work & rating scale Free online rubric tool

14 4 |

15  Multiple-choice tests usually measure student recall, not understanding  Criticisms of NCLB standardized tests: At best, offers partial snapshot of what students know At worst, provides unreliable data because of mismatch with local curricula (test given before material is taught for example)

16 4 |  To incorporate what you’ve learned about teaching into your approach: Be comfortable with yourself Let students express their ideas often Ask where their ideas come from Connect subject to their lives Learn material for yourself (prepare!) Let students explore material on their own

17 4 |  Don’t feel tied to one educational philosophy, theory, or teaching method  Use multiple approaches, adapt your approach and pedagogy to the needs of the students.  Big question: Who are my students and how can I best teach them? Understand their lives & existing prior knowledge Ask them what they know!

18 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 9 - 18

19 Review TEKS for grade level and content area. Using a Teacher’s Manual, discuss and answer question on your handout. Share answers with class. 9 - 19 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

20  The Lesson Plan instructions are listed in a Content File in your Blackboard Folder.  A grading rubric is included with the instructions.  Due date for this project is April 26.  Presentations of the Lesson Plans for the whole class will be May 1,3 and 10. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 9 - 20

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