P RESENT PERFECT Present perfect sentences must contain the auxiliary verb “ have ”. Sentence structure: Subject + has/have + past participle
P RESENT PERFECT Subject + has/have + past participle Examples She has gone to the mall. (singular) They have gone to the mall. (plural) How is Present Perfect similar to Simple Past, Present & Past Progressive? There is only ONE conjugation of the main verb in both singular and plural sentences. The auxiliary verb changes according to the number of subject.
P RESENT PERFECT Conjugation of past participle Regular VerbsExamples Add “ -ed ” to base form of verbs Talk + -ed Talk ed Present + -ed Present ed Delay+ -ed Delay ed
P RESENT PERFECT Conjugation of past participle Regular VerbsExamples Add “ -d ” to base form of verbs (ending with “ -e ”) Update + -d Update d Whine + -d Whine d Decide + -d Decide d
P RESENT PERFECT Conjugation of past participle Irregular Verbs Refer to irregular verb list @ http://www.englishpage.com/irregularverbs/irregular verbs.html http://www.englishpage.com/irregularverbs/irregular verbs.html
P RESENT PERFECT 3 Primary Functions Function 1 Unspecified time To express something in the past when We do not know when it happened Example: I have lost my keys When? You do not know exactly.
P RESENT PERFECT 3 Primary Functions Function 1 Unspecified time To express something in the past when The time of event is not important. Example: I have travelled to Australia. When? Not the main point here.
P RESENT PERFECT Function 1 Unspecified time This is often confused with simple past tense. The key is whether the time is specified or not.
P RESENT PERFECT I have travelled to Australia. In this sentence, no time is specified. I travelled to Australia in 2010. In this sentence, time is specified. “in 2010” can be replaced with “last year”, “this morning”, “when I was 10” etc. Present PerfectSimple Past
P RESENT PERFECT Function 2 Repetition To describe something that has happened several times in the past and is true even till now
P RESENT PERFECT Function 2 Repetition Example I have dined at Bosses thrice already. She has walked past that museum countless times but has never gone in.
P RESENT PERFECT Function 3 To describe something that started in the past, continues until now, and may or may not continue into the future Example My cousin has lived in Perth since 2005.
P RESENT PERFECT Function 3 To describe something that started in the past, continues until now, and may or may not continue into the future Present perfect tense can be replaced by present perfect progressive when you want to emphasize on the time/duration.
P RESENT PERFECT I have waited for you for 10 minutes. Neutral tone I have been waiting for you for 10 minutes. Time is emphasized Inference The speaker is angry. Present Perfect Present Perfect Progressive The duration does not need to be long to use PPP. The main point is that the speaker wants to emphasize the duration.
P RESENT PERFECT How to decide when to use Present Perfect and Simple Past? If the sentence contains “ for ” or “ since ”, Present Perfect is used.