Presentation on theme: "… clearing up a little confusion"— Presentation transcript:
1… clearing up a little confusion The Perfect Tenses… clearing up a little confusion
2Present Perfect Form Present tense of have (agrees with subject) Past participle of main verbExamples:Have talkedHas run
3The Present Perfect Function (Type 1) Remember that “perfect” means “before”!We use the present perfect tense when we talk about something that happened before now (before the present) at an unspecific time in the past. We don’t know when.I have seen that movie.I have never seen that movie.I have already seen that movie.I have seen that movie before.
4The Present Perfect Function (Type 2) We also use the present perfect tense when we talk about something that happened repeatedly or several times before now (before the present. We still don’t know exactly when. It’s not important.)We have had five grammar tests so far this quarter.You have written writing tests almost every week for the past eight weeks.You have learned a LOT of information since we started class.You have done homework many times!
5The Present Perfect Function (Type 3) In addition, the present perfect tense is used with for or since to describe a situation that started before now but also continues now.You have been in this class for 9 weeks.You have been at NSCC since fall quarter last year.
6Notice! FOR is used before a duration (a length) of time: For two yearsFor three daysFor as long as I can rememberSINCE is used before a particular time:Since 12:00Since I arrived in SeattleSince I was a child
7Other signals… We haven’t taken our final exams yet. We still haven’t taken our final exams.Have you ever taken a final exam?
8Present Perfect Progressive Form Present tense of have (agrees with subject)Past participle of BE (been)Present Participle of main verbExamples:Have been talkingHas been running
9The Present Perfect Progressive Function The present perfect progressive is used to talk about something that started before now and is in progress (continues) now.We often use it because we want to focus on how long something has been happening (the duration).Signals for this:for, since, all morning, all day, all week
10PPP examples I have been studying for four hours. I need a break! I have been listening to this lecture since 3:30. My brain hurts.It’s been raining all day. Where is summer?
11More PPPWe also use the present perfect progressive to express something that’s been happening in the recent past, but there is no mention of time. It’s not important.The students have been working hard lately: it’s the end of the quarter and they all want to pass.Recently, she has been thinking about studying music when she goes to the university.
12Don’t forget!Remember there are certain verbs you can’t use in a progressive tense. They’re called stative or nonprogressive verbs. They’re often about the mind, the heart, or the senses (and a few other things).A few exceptions:I have been thinking about/of studying music. OKI have been thinking studying music. NOT OKShe has been having fun/dinner/a great time. OKShe has been having a dog/a car/an iPod. NOT OK
13Also…With some verbs (live, work, teach, and others) you can use either present perfect or present perfect progressive. The meaning is the same.I have lived in Seattle for five years.I have been living in Seattle for five years.I have lived in Seattle since 2007.I have been living in Seattle since 2007.
14Past Perfect Form Past tense of have (had - always) Past participle of main verbExamples:Had talkedHad run
15Past Perfect Tense Function We use the past perfect, usually in combination with the simple past, to express an activity that finished before a second activity started.The first activity in time is in the past perfect tense.The second activity in time is in the simple past tense.The activities are somehow related. This relationship connects them.
16Past Perfect ExamplesThe students had taken a placement test before they started classes.By the time they started classes, the students had already taken a placement test.
17Past Perfect Progressive Form Past tense of have (had - always)Past participle of BE (been)Present Participle of main verbExamples:Had been talkingHad been running
18Past Perfect Progressive Function This tense is similar to the present perfect progressive in that it emphasizes the duration of an activity. It’s like the past perfect in that the action it is expressing started before a second action. It was in progress before the second action.
19Past Perfect Progressive Examples The students had been studying English for several years before they came to America.He had been writing for two hours straight when his teacher asked him to hand in the test.They had been waiting in the classroom since noon when the teacher finally arrived, 15 minutes late!The teacher asked him to hand in the test at 1:50. He had been writing since 12:00.
20Past Perfect Progressive Trickiness! This tense can also be used to express an action that is not in progress now, but has just recently stopped. We know this because we can see the results now.It was clear that she had been running. She was out of breath.I’m sure she had been crying. Her eyes were red.
21Where are the perfect tenses? You have just watched a PowerPoint that aims to clarify your understanding of the perfect tenses. Choosing the correct tense is difficult for many students, even if they have been studying English for several years. When choosing a tense, you must think about everything you have learned about time, meaning, and signal words.Good luck!!!