2 Parameters for describing consonants So far (this is not complete yet) we haveAirstream (usually the same for all consonants)Place of articulationVoicingManner of articulationSo, [p] is …egressive pulmonicbilabialvoicelessplosiveThis was what I was expecting in the quiz!
4 Affricates in Mandarin /tsʰ/ and /ts//tʂʰ/ and /tʂ//tɕʰ/ and /tɕ/Can you guess what they are?What is the ʰ?Why have I suddenly started using /asd/ instead of [asd]? (slant brackets instead of square brackets)ㄘ and ㄗㄔ and ㄓ(retroflex affricate)ㄐ and ㄑ(alveolo-palatal affricate)
5 Aspiration Aspirated and unaspirated consonants ㄅ is unaspirated [p]Voicing for the next sound (a vowel) begins immediately after plosionㄆ is aspirated [ph] (puff of air)Vocal folds remain open briefly, after the stop is releasedEnglish: spit vs pit (aspiration difference)Compare pit vs bitThat is a voicing differenceAspiration is much less important in English than in ChineseCan you explain why?
6 Because aspiration in Mandarin is phonemic pʰ and p are two different phones; two different soundsbut in Mandarin they are different phonemes/pʰa/ (ㄆㄚ) and /pa/ (ㄅㄚ) represent different meaningsin English pʰ and p do not help to distinguish meaningThere are no minimal pairs like pʰa and paSlant brackets are used for phonemic transcriptions //Square brackets are used for phonetic transcriptions This is an important pointWe will return to it later
8 This weekSound description, recording and animation. Take a look at and click on “English library”.Read about vowels, pp What are the parameters for describing vowels (like voicing, airstream etc with consonants)?
9 Vowels vs consonants Consonants Vowels There is some obstruction in the vocal tract (=the mouth or throat)VowelsThere is no such obstruction (the air flows freely)
10 Regional accent variation English accentsThe consonants are generally the sameThe vowels are often very differentMandarin Chinese accentsPronunciation of consonants often varies widely according to region
11 Describing vowels Say [i] followed by [æ] (like cat) Think about where your tongue isLook in a mirrorWhat changes? What can you say about the position of the tongue in the two cases?This is one of the parameters of vowel description
12 Another parameter Now compare [ɑ] (father) with [æ] (like cat) You can also try comparing the vowels in ㄢ and ㄤNotice any difference?This is the second distinguishing parameter (factor)
13 The third parameter Fromkin (p254) invites you to compare 四 with 速 Or more straightforwardly, compare ㄧ with ㄩThe difference should be quickly apparent
15 The IPA vowel chartThis is a stylized representation of the inside of the mouthIt showsthe cardinal vowelsmarked by black dotsand the approximate position of vowels common in many languagesThe next slide shows the position of English vowels on the same kind of chart
17 Links for vowel sounds General American (GenAm) British “Received Pronunciation” (RP)Cardinal vowels (those shown on the IPA chart) and diphthongs of RP and GenAmThis is one of the best designed web interfaces I have ever seen, by the way!
18 DiphthongsFromkin describes these as a vowel + a glide (p255) so /bajt/; /bawt/Most other writers say there are two vowels involvedan initial vowel, in “bite” or ㄞ = aa target vowel, in “bite” or ㄞ = Ithe tongue moves towards Ibut doesn’t actually reach its targetCheck the cool website for a demo
19 Tense vs lax vowels: Fromkin British vowels are short /I/ or long /i:/Some people write the transcription with the colon (:)American vowels are generally described as either tense or laxSee p255Some of the tense vowels correspond to diphthongs in British pronunciation/lod/ /ləʊd/; /led/ /leIdThis means that /e/ is available to transcribe American /ɛ/so, “led” is /lɛd/ in American transcription, but /led/ in British transcriptionAnd /led/ would be spelled “laid” to an American linguistA question for you to consider:We talked about 3 parameters for describing vowels. Why don’t we have a 4th parameter “length” or “tenseness” or “laxness”?
20 Quizzes, exams etc etcIn week 10, there is an 80 minute midterm exam. You can expect questions on:Anything I talked about in classAnything on these slidesAnything from the web resources I referred you toAnything from Fromkin, in the sections related to what we covered in classFor some questions, you will write a short answer of a few words, maybe a number, maybe a symbolFor other questions, you will write a short paragraph.You will get a half credit for anything you write in Chinese
21 Quizzes, exams etc etc The quiz last time was slightly disappointing So, next week there will be another quizAll consonants (including approximants/glides and affricates) found in English and MandarinVowels of American English, classified according to Figure 6.5 in FromkinIf I ask for a symbol, write only one symbolIf I ask for the 3 or 4 parameters which define a sound, write the term for each of the 3 or 4 parameters!