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1 Linguistics week 6 Phonetics 4. 2 Parameters for describing consonants So far (this is not complete yet) we have – Airstream (usually the same for all.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Linguistics week 6 Phonetics 4. 2 Parameters for describing consonants So far (this is not complete yet) we have – Airstream (usually the same for all."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Linguistics week 6 Phonetics 4

2 2 Parameters for describing consonants So far (this is not complete yet) we have – Airstream (usually the same for all consonants) – Place of articulation – Voicing – Manner of articulation So, [p] is … – egressive pulmonic – bilabial – voiceless – plosive This was what I was expecting in the quiz!

3 3

4 4 Affricates in Mandarin /ts ʰ / and /ts/ /t ʂʰ / and /t ʂ / /t ɕʰ / and /t ɕ / – Can you guess what they are? – What is the ʰ ? – Why have I suddenly started using /asd/ instead of [asd]? (slant brackets instead of square brackets) ㄘ and ㄗ ㄔ and ㄓ (retroflex affricate) ㄐ and ㄑ (alveolo-palatal affricate)

5 5 Aspiration Aspirated and unaspirated consonants – ㄅ is unaspirated [p] »Voicing for the next sound (a vowel) begins immediately after plosion – ㄆ is aspirated [p h ] (puff of air) »Vocal folds remain open briefly, after the stop is released English: spit vs pit (aspiration difference) – Compare pit vs bit – That is a voicing difference Aspiration is much less important in English than in Chinese – Can you explain why?

6 6 Because aspiration in Mandarin is phonemic p ʰ and p are two different phones; two different sounds but in Mandarin they are different phonemes – /p ʰ a/ ( ㄆㄚ ) and /pa/ ( ㄅㄚ ) represent different meanings – in English p ʰ and p do not help to distinguish meaning – There are no minimal pairs like p ʰ a and pa Slant brackets are used for phonemic transcriptions // Square brackets are used for phonetic transcriptions [] This is an important point – We will return to it later

7 7 Mandarin sounds PA_NPA_4.htm PA_NPA_4.htm

8 8 This week Sound description, recording and animation. Take a look at about.html# and click on “English library”. about.html# Read about vowels, pp What are the parameters for describing vowels (like voicing, airstream etc with consonants)?

9 9 Vowels vs consonants Consonants – There is some obstruction in the vocal tract (=the mouth or throat) Vowels – There is no such obstruction (the air flows freely)

10 10 Regional accent variation English accents – The consonants are generally the same – The vowels are often very different Mandarin Chinese accents – Pronunciation of consonants often varies widely according to region

11 11 Describing vowels Say [i] followed by [æ] (like cat) – Think about where your tongue is – Look in a mirror – What changes? What can you say about the position of the tongue in the two cases? This is one of the parameters of vowel description

12 12 Another parameter Now compare [ ɑ ] (father) with [æ] (like cat) You can also try comparing the vowels in ㄢ and ㄤ Notice any difference? This is the second distinguishing parameter (factor)

13 13 The third parameter Fromkin (p254) invites you to compare 四 with 速 Or more straightforwardly, compare ㄧ with ㄩ – The difference should be quickly apparent

14 14 So, the 3 parameters are…

15 15 The IPA vowel chart This is a stylized representation of the inside of the mouth It shows –the cardinal vowels marked by black dots –and the approximate position of vowels common in many languages The next slide shows the position of English vowels on the same kind of chart

16 16 BritishAmerican

17 17 Links for vowel sounds General American (GenAm) – British “Received Pronunciation” (RP) – Cardinal vowels (those shown on the IPA chart) and diphthongs of RP and GenAm – – This is one of the best designed web interfaces I have ever seen, by the way!

18 18 Diphthongs Fromkin describes these as a vowel + a glide (p255) so /bajt/; /bawt/ Most other writers say there are two vowels involved – an initial vowel, in “bite” or ㄞ = a – a target vowel, in “bite” or ㄞ = I – the tongue moves towards I – but doesn’t actually reach its target – Check the cool website for a democool website

19 19 Tense vs lax vowels: Fromkin British vowels are short / I / or long /i:/ – Some people write the transcription with the colon (:) American vowels are generally described as either tense or lax – See p255 Some of the tense vowels correspond to diphthongs in British pronunciation – /lod/  /lə ʊ d/; /led/  /le I d – This means that /e/ is available to transcribe American / ɛ / – so, “led” is /l ɛ d/ in American transcription, but /led/ in British transcription – And /led/ would be spelled “laid” to an American linguist A question for you to consider: – We talked about 3 parameters for describing vowels. Why don’t we have a 4th parameter “length” or “tenseness” or “laxness”?

20 20 Quizzes, exams etc etc In week 10, there is an 80 minute midterm exam. You can expect questions on: – Anything I talked about in class – Anything on these slides – Anything from the web resources I referred you to – Anything from Fromkin, in the sections related to what we covered in class For some questions, you will write a short answer of a few words, maybe a number, maybe a symbol For other questions, you will write a short paragraph. You will get a half credit for anything you write in Chinese

21 21 Quizzes, exams etc etc The quiz last time was slightly disappointing So, next week there will be another quiz – All consonants (including approximants/glides and affricates) found in English and Mandarin – Vowels of American English, classified according to Figure 6.5 in Fromkin If I ask for a symbol, write only one symbol If I ask for the 3 or 4 parameters which define a sound, write the term for each of the 3 or 4 parameters!


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