3 REVISIONPHONETICSThe study of articulation, transmission and perception of speech soundsArticulatory phoneticsAcoustic phoneticsAuditory phonetics
4 Articulatory phonetics is the study of the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech soundsThe number of vocal organs varies with languages: there are speech sounds that do not use an air-stream from the lungs (non-pulmonic sounds, e.g. clicks tut tut or tsk tsk)
5 Acoustic phoneticsis the study of the physical properties of speech sounds and how they are transmittedSound energy is a pressure wave consisting of vibrations of molecules in an elastic medium – a gas, a liquid, a solid; in this case, air – air particles are disturbed through the movements and vibrations of the vocal organs, especially the vocal folds. The process continues as a chain reaction for as long as the energy lasts.Air particles move in the form of a wave: they are characterized by oscillation , frequency (hertz), amplitude and intensity (decibels).
6 Waveforms of the vowel /a:/ and the consonant /s/
7 Spectrograph:Speech spectrograph (a machine) is used to display sounds acoustically: time (duration) of a sound is displayed horizontally, acoustic frequency of a sound is displayed vertically, and intensity is shown by the relative darkness of the marks.
9 Spectrogram:Vowels and vowel-like sounds are darkest and different vowel qualities can be seen in the changing pattern of black bands (formants) which represent varying concentrations of acoustic energy in the vocal tract.
10 Auditory phoneticsis the study of the way people perceive speech sounds; the study of speech perception.1st step – when sound waves arrive at the ear;2nd step – transmission of sound along the auditory nerve to the brain
11 PHONOLOGYThe application of phonetics to a particular language or languagesIn most languages fewer than 50 distinct sound unitsIt is concerned with establishing what units of sound a language uses and how it makes use of themExamines the relationship between sounds in a given language and takes account of the theory of sound systems in general
12 PhonologyBy contrast with phonetics, which studies all possible sounds that the human vocal apparatus can make, phonology studies only those contrasts in sound (the phonemes) which make differences of meaning within language.
13 PhonologyWhen considering the sound system of English, we are referring to the number of phonemes which are used in the language, and to how they are organized. To say there are 20 phonemes in a particular accent means that there are 20 units which can differentiate word meanings: e.g. /e/ is different from /i:/, for example, because there are pairs of words (such as set and seat) which can be distinguished only by replacing one of these vowels by the other.
14 Purpose of the courseHow English is pronounced in the accent chosen as the Standard(advanced level)the above mentioned information in the context of a general theory of speech sounds and their use in a particular languagePhonetics and phonology – the theoretical context
15 The necessity of the theoretical background Working with the language at an advanced level requires deeper understanding of grammar and related areas of linguistics
16 The basic ideas of phonetics and phonology Phonemes, e.g. “pin” – “pen”“pet” – “bet”Pronunciation also makes things difficult:“enough” vs. “inept” vs. “stuff”Same sounds have different spelling,therefore can be recognized as same only when transcribed
17 Course developmentIdentifying and describing phonemes in English, either vowels or consonantsPhonemes and the use of symbolsLarger units of speech,e.g. syllable, and further:stress (relative strength of a syllable)andintonation (use of the pitch of the voice to convey meaning)
18 Using “ROACH” Bold type – introduction of technical terms Single quotes – (‘...’) words used as examples in spelling formDouble quotes – (“...”) normal use of quote marks
19 ACCENTS AND DIALECTSSame languages pronounced differently by people from different geographical areas, social classes, ages, educational backgrounds, etc. are said to have different accentsACCENT ≠ DIALECTVarieties of a language different from others not just in pronunciation but also in vocabulary, grammar, word order are called dialects
20 RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION (RP) – BBC PRONUNCIATION The model of English most often recommended for foreign learners studying British English;Used by most announcers and newsreaders on BBC showing consistency in the broadcast speech
21 use of different sounds ≠ unintelligibility D. Jones (1909)“ ‘Good’ speech may be defined as a way of speaking which is clearly intelligible to all ordinary people.‘Bad’ speech is a way of talking which is difficult for most people to understand. ...”use of different sounds ≠ unintelligibility
22 However, do not doubt! Concentrate on STANDARD ! VARIETIES will be consideredlater !