Presentation on theme: "+ Phonolog y Chapter 5 The sound patterns of language: 1.Phonology 2.Phonemes 3.Phones and allophones 4.Minimal pairs and sets."— Presentation transcript:
+ Phonolog y Chapter 5 The sound patterns of language: 1.Phonology 2.Phonemes 3.Phones and allophones 4.Minimal pairs and sets.
+ 1.Phonology : The description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language. ( unconscious knowledge ) Phonology is concerned with the abstract or mental aspect of the sounds in language rather than with the actual physical articulation of speech sounds.
+ Blue print each sound type e.g. tar, star, writer, eighth (actual speech: different, Phonology: the same) Tar, car, far, bar
+ Phonology is concerned with the abstract set of sounds in a language that allows us to distinguish meaning in the actual physical sounds we say and hear.
+ 2. Phonemes: The meaning-distinguishing sound in a language. [t] /t/ It functions contrastively. E.g. Fan – van, fine – vine, fat – vat ( a test to determine the phonemes that exist in a language ) ( substation >> a change of meaning >> different phonemes )
+ The natural class of sounds: The sounds which have features in common and would behave phonologically in some similar ways. e.g. /p/ -voice, +bilabial, +stop /k/ -voice, +velar, +stop /v/ +voice, +labiodental, +fricative (It could lead us to know the permissible sound sequences in the language, /kl-/, /pl-/ /vl-/
+ 3. Phones and Allophones: Phones: different versions of the sound type regularly produced in actual speech (‘in the mouth’), they are phonetic units and appear in square brackets. Allophones: a group of several phones. All of which are versions of one phoneme. e.g. the phoneme /t/ has different allophones Star, tar, writer, eighth *aspiration (the puff of the air)
+ The crucial distinction between phonemes and allophones is that substituting one phoneme for another will result in a word with a different meaning (as well as a different pronunciation), but substituting allophones only results in a different (and perhaps unusual pronunciation of the same words.