Presentation on theme: "Phonolog y The sound patterns of language: Phonology Phonemes"— Presentation transcript:
1 Phonolog y The sound patterns of language: Phonology Phonemes Phones and allophonesMinimal pairs and sets.Phonolog yChapter 5
2 Phonology :The description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language.( unconscious knowledge )Phonology is concerned with the abstract or mental aspect of the sounds in language rather than with the actual physical articulation of speech sounds.
3 Blue print each sound type e.g. tar, star, writer, eighth(actual speech: different,Phonology: the same)Tar, car, far, bar
4 Phonology is concerned with the abstract set of sounds in a language that allows us to distinguish meaning in the actual physical sounds we say and hear.
5 2. Phonemes:The meaning-distinguishing sound in a language.[t] /t/It functions contrastively.E.g. Fan – van, fine – vine, fat – vat( a test to determine the phonemes that exist in a language )( substation >> a change of meaning >> different phonemes )
6 The natural class of sounds: The sounds which have features in common and would behave phonologically in some similar ways.e.g./p/ -voice, +bilabial, +stop/k/ -voice, +velar, +stop/v/ +voice, +labiodental, +fricative(It could lead us to know the permissible sound sequences in the language, /kl-/,/pl-//vl-/
7 e.g. the phoneme /t/ has different allophones 3. Phones and Allophones:Phones: different versions of the sound type regularly produced in actual speech (‘in the mouth’), they are phonetic units and appear in square brackets.Allophones: a group of several phones. All of which are versions of one phoneme.e.g. the phoneme /t/ has different allophonesStar , tar, writer, eighth*aspiration (the puff of the air)
8 The crucial distinction between phonemes and allophones is that substituting one phoneme for another will result in a word with a different meaning (as well as a different pronunciation), but substituting allophones only results in a different (and perhaps unusual pronunciation of the same words.