2 Articulation The process of joining two elements together Articulatory system is the system of mobile and immobile articulators brought into contact for the purpose of shaping the sounds of speechWhat happens to the sound after it reaches the oral cavitySounds=phonemes
3 Source Filter Theory of Vowel Production Voice is generated by the vocal folds and routed through the vocal tract where it is shaped into the sounds of speechChanges in the shape and configuration of the tongue, mandible, soft palate and other articulators govern the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract, and the resonances of the tract determine the sound of a given vowel.
4 Resonant frequencyWhen you move your tongue around in your mouth, you are changing the shape of your oral cavity, making it smaller or larger, lengthening or shortening.Change the shape of the oral cavity= change the resonant frequency=change the sound that comes out of the mouthVowels- source will always be phonationConsonants- sources will include turbulence of frication or combination of voicing and turbulence
7 Resonant frequency Say the words “he” and “who” Share with your partner what is happening with your tongue, mandible, lips when you say each of these words.
8 Production of /s/ , /sh/Share with your friend the placement of your tongue for an /s/ sound and how it changes for the /sh/ sound Be prepared to share
9 Speech FunctionSpeech production requires execution of an extremely well-organized and integrated sequence of neuromotor eventsSay the word “Tube”Tongue elevates to alveolar ridge while simultaneously elevating and tensing the velumAir pressure builds up behind the tongueTongue actively drops to release the pressure and produce the /t/As it releases it quickly retracts to produce the /u/ assisted by the rounding of your lipsLips then close tightly with buildup of air pressure for the final /b/All of this happens in less than 3/10 of a second and we don’t even think about it
10 LipsLower lip achieves a greater velocity and force than the upper lip and seems to do most of the work in lip closureThe extra force is due to the mentalis muscleLower lip is attached to a movable articulator- the mandibleLower lip is capable of rapidly altering its rate of closureLips are amazingly resistant to interference- they adjust and accommodate to physical restraintsExperiment on bottom of p. 378 with tongue depressors
11 Mandible A helper Assists the lips Changes position for tongue movementTightly closes when necessarySupportive role of carrying the lips, tongue, and teeth to their targets in the maxillaAdjustments are rather smallMuscles of mandibular elevation are endowed with muscle spindles- reflexes within the jawVery important for mastication- mandible elevates, grinds laterally and then depresses in a rhythmic fashionFor speech- mandible elevates and depresses with slight modifications, quick adjustments
12 Tongue It is the most important of the articulators Involved in the production of the majority of the phonemesTongue tip elevation /t/, /d/Tongue tip depression /k/, /g/Tongue tip deviation, left and rightLateral margins relaxation /l/Tongue narrowingCentral tongue groovingRetractionProtrusionPosterior Tongue elevation /k/Tongue body depression
13 Velum Closed for non-nasal speech Open for nasal sounds /n/, /m/, /ng/ Opens and closes in coordination with other articulators avoiding the effect of nasal resonance on other phonemesProduction of high pressure consonants requires greater velopharyngeal effort- superior pharyngeal constrictor and uvular muscles assist /v/, /d/, /b/Hard and soft palate are richly endowed with receptors that provide feedback concerning pressure and they facilitate or inhibit motor lingual activity
14 Articulatory Development The development of articulation is a hierarchy and based on motor controlThe infant must balance muscle tone before being able to sitHe must sit before he can establish independent head and neck controlWith the control of the neck muscles comes freedom to move the mandible and tongue independentlyStarts with babbling where they just have to open and close the mouth /m/,/b/, /p/ and vowelsProgressively increases ability to articulate more difficult sounds /s/, /z/, /th/.
15 Vocal Tract Development Infant size 6-8 cm from lips to vocal foldsAdult size cm from lips to vocal foldsAs the infant growsThe nasopharynx enlarges and becomes more sharply angledOral and pharyngeal cavities growTongue descendsOropharyngeal space increasesLength and depth of mandible increases to accommodate the tongueReaches adult oral cavity size by age of 7-18 years.
16 Coordinated Articulation Speech is the most complex sequential motor task performed by humansConceptual SystemWe must first develop the idea to be expressedThe idea represents the sentence to be spokenThe idea must be mapped into a syntactical system, establish language forms acceptable to match the concept“Tomorrow is Monday” is an idea that is chosen and the words have been chosen to fit the syntaxPhonological SystemPhonological rules are applied to establish the correct phoneme combinations to meet the needs of the words“Tomorrow is Monday” is further broken down into syllables, phonemes and features of the phonemes/T/ is a lingua-alveolar stop, voiceless sound
17 Coordinated Articulation Muscle Movement systemMuscles are activated to meet the needs of the feature selection process/T/ now becomes movement of the muscles of the tongue that will produce the lingua alveolar gesture (superior longitudinal and genioglossus muscles)Coarticulation: Overlapping effect of one articulatory pattern on another
18 Coarticulation in running speech Overlapping effect of one articulatory gesture on another/see/ and /sue/ lips are retracted and lips are rounded