2The production of speech sounds The production of any speech sound involves the movement of an air stream.Most speech sounds are produced by pushing the air out of the lungs through the mouth (oral) and sometimes through the nose (nasal).
3Vocal TractThe airway used in the production of speech, especially the passage above the larynx, including the pharynx, mouth, and nasal cavities.
4Articulators are divided into 2 parts: Passive articulatorsUpper articulatorsactive articulatorsLower articulators
51. Pharynx It serves primarily as a tube connecting the larynx with the oral andnasal cavities.
6(Hard ) Palate Also called the “roof of the mouth” It is a curved surfaced .
7/g/, /k/, / ŋ/ Velum/ Soft Palate It is located between the pharynx and the hard palate. It controls the airflow into the nasal cavity.
8Unlike he hard palate, which is made of bone, the soft palate is made of muscle and soft tissue. When it is lowered it allows air to flow into the nasal cavity and exit through the nose. When it is raised the air can enter the oral cavity only.
9Alveolar ridge /d/, /t/,/n/ It is situated between the teeth and the hard palate.It is covered with little ridges/d/, /t/,/n/
10The Tongue It is the most important articulator. It can be moved to many different places.It is divided into 6 parts.
11The teethThey are located at the front of the mouth immediately behind the lipsFor many speech sounds the tongue is in contact with the upper teeth./θ/, /ð/
12The lips /b/, /p/, (/m/) They are very important in speech The can be pressed together/b/, /p/, (/m/)
13They can be brought into contact with the teeth /f/, /v/