3How the voice works Speech is distinctly a human characteristic Speech - mechanism is composed of various parts of our body which have other uses.
4Breathing Diaphragm Lungs Nasal Passage Eating and Swallowing Teeth Various Parts: These uses are actually more important to our physical survival than speech.BreathingDiaphragmLungsNasal PassageEating and SwallowingTeethLipsTongue
5Speech is called an Overlaid Function: - The use of our lips, teeth, lungs, and so on for speech that is laid over their primary functions.
6Four processes of speech There are four steps that are involved in the production of speech:RespirationPhonationResonationArticulation
7RespirationOr breathing that is basically the process by which air is taken into the lungs so that our blood can receive the oxygen we need to survive.
8How breathing works Our lungs rest inside our chest cavity or thorax. It is surrounded by our rib cage and bounded at the bottom by the diaphragm.Air is drawn into the lungs by increasing the size of the cavity, which reduces the relative air pressure inside the thorax and cause air from outside to rush in until the pressure is equalized.
9There are three ways to increase the chest cavity The clavicles*(collar bone) Can be elevated, which usually causes a corresponding elevation of the shouldersThe rib cage* Can be expanded, like a loud yellDiaphragm* Can be contracted, forcing the abdominal organs downward and outward
10Actors need a large supply of air for making long speeches Clavicular breathing gives only a minimal amount of airRid-Cage breathing is more efficient because the rib cage can be expanded more then the claviclesBreathing from your diaphragm draws a large quantity of air deep into the lungsThis type of breathing enables an actor to make longer speeches without gasping breathing allows the for breath
11Phonation Making a sound. Sound is created by vibrations when air is taken into the lungs and pushed our through the bronchial tubes and trachea.As it passes through the larynx (or voice box) the vocal cords are brought close enough together that the passing stream air causes them to vibrate.
12Resonation Sound created needs to be made louder and stronger This function is served by three parts:PharynxOral cavityNasal cavity
13PharynxIs the large opening area at the back of your mouthOral cavityIs the mouthNasal cavityIs the air passage from the pharynx to the nose
14Articulation Breaking the sound into meaningful units and patterns. There are seven articulators, tools that help us break sound created into syllables and words.
16The 7 articulators are used in various combinations. Example, the tongue and the lower jaw are responsible for most of the vowel sounds, such as in words like beet, bet, and bat.The lips form the sound in letters such as b and p.The teeth and the lower lip combine form the letters f and v.The tongue and teeth create the th sound.
17The four properties of tone We can change the sound of our voice in four different ways:StrengthPitchTimeQuality
18Strength The property of voice commonly known as loudness or volume How much sound is produced is controlled by the way the amount of air we push past our vocal cords.Keep in mind that we want strength without strain, relax the muscles in your throat and properly use your diaphragm in order to keep from getting hoarse.
19Pitch The pitch of sound is determined by the speed of the vibration. The faster the vibration the higher the pitch.The idea for an actor to work on pitch range is so they have an way to be expressive and not monotone!
20Inflection Describes the variation is pitch during speech. A sentence or a word can have a rising inflection, a falling inflection, and a circumflex inflection.Pitch ranges from high to medium to low.
21TimeTwo parts of out speech that are timed, they are the sounds and the silences (which are the spaces between the sounds).
22Quality The change in vocal tone. Six Basic Qualities: Normal Nasal OralGutturalAspirateOrotund
23Accents and Dialects Accent- the way certain words are pronounced. Dialect- is the way a language is spoken, such as the use of slang, lingo, and particular jargon. There can be many different dialects within a language.
24Elements of accents and dialects Vowel changesConsonant changesInflection patternsStress patternsWord choices