Presentation on theme: "Conditioning and Learning Processes Chapter 9. 9-2 Process by which a neutral stimulus becomes capable of eliciting a response because it was repeatedly."— Presentation transcript:
9-2 Process by which a neutral stimulus becomes capable of eliciting a response because it was repeatedly paired with a stimulus that naturally causes the response –Unconditional stimuli –Unconditioned response –Conditioned response Classical Conditioning
9-4 Process of classical conditioning –Can be accomplished not only with unconditioned stimuli, but also with previously conditioned stimuli –Classically conditioned behaviors are controlled by stimuli that occur before the behavior Classical Conditioning cont.
9-5 –The behaviors influenced by classical conditioning are assumed to be under the control of the autonomic nervous system –Affective responses often follow the principles of classical conditioning Classical Conditioning cont.
9-6 Marketing and consumer behavior implications –Product-related stimuli –Closer contact –General emotional responses as a result of stimuli –Stimuli at or near point of purchase Classical Conditioning cont.
9-7 Classical Conditioning cont. Consumer research on classical conditioning Marketing implications
9-8 Operant Conditioning Process of altering the probability of a behavior being emitted by changing the consequences of the behavior Differs from classical conditioning in two important ways –Operant conditioning deals with behaviors that are usually assumed to be under the conscious control of the individual
9-9 Operant Conditioning cont. –Operant behaviors are emitted because of consequences that occur after the behavior At any given time there is a certain probability that an individual will emit a particular behavior
9-10 Operant Conditioning cont. Response hierarchy –Positive reinforcement occurs when the reward increases the probability of the behavior being repeated –Negative reinforcement can occur if the frequency of consumer behavior can also be increased by removing aversive stimuli
9-11 Operant Conditioning cont. How extinction can occur How punishment occurs Reinforcement schedules –Continuous –Fixed ratio –Variable ratio
9-12 Operant Conditioning cont. Shaping –Defined –Examples Discriminative stimuli –Presence or absence of certain stimuli –Often said to set the occasion for behaviors –Examples
9-16 Vicarious Learning cont. Uses of vicarious learning in marketing strategy –Developing new responses –Inhibiting undesired responses –Response facilitation
9-17 Vicarious Learning cont. Factors influencing modeling effectiveness –Model and modeled behavior characteristics –Characteristics of observers –Characteristics of modeled consequences Marketing implications –Modeling can be helpful in developing information contact behaviors
9-18 Vicarious Learning cont. –Modeling can be used to increase store contact and product contact behaviors by demonstrating how consumers can get to a store or mall or find products –Modeling can be used to influence funds access and transactions –Modeling can be used to influence consumption by demonstrating how a product can be used safely and effectively
9-20 Summary Discussed classical conditioning Examined how marketers use classical conditioning to create favorable affect and increase chances that consumers will perform desired behaviors Operant conditioning was described
9-21 Summary cont. Learned that the antecedents to behavior that influence operant conditioning are called discriminative stimuli Examined how the consequence of behaviors are arranged to either increase or decrease the behaviors in the future
9-22 Summary cont. Vicarious learning and modeling was discussed Described how conditioning and modeling processes are commonly used in developing marketing strategies to influence consumer behavior