2 OPERANT CONDITIONING Thorndike’s law of effect states that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakenedSkinner’s operant conditioningfocuses on how consequences (rewards or punishments) affect behaviors)1920’s and 1930’s gave learning a mighty jolt with the discovery of two general principlesPavlov’s classical conditioning
3 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Principles and proceduresSkinner boxautomated to record the animal’s bar presses and deliver food pelletsSkinner box is an efficient way to study how an animal’s ongoing behaviors may be modified by changing the consequences of what happens after a bar press3 factors in operant conditioning of a rata hungry rat will be more willing to eat the food rewardoperant response: condition the rat to press the barshaping: procedure in which an experimenter successively reinforces behaviors that lead up to or approximate the desired behavior
5 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) ShapingFacing the barrat is put in box.when rat finally faces the bar, food pellet is releasedrat sniffs the food pelletTouching the barrat faces and moves towards the baranother pellet is released.Rat eats then wanders. Returning to sniff for a pellet, another pellet is dropped into the cup. Rat places a paw on the bar and another pellet is released.
6 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) ShapingPressing the barWhen rat touches bar pellet is released. Rat eats and then puts paws back on bar and gets another pellet. Wait for rat to now push bar then release pellet.Rat soon presses bar over and over again to get pellets.Rat’s behavior was reinforced as the rat leads up to, or approximates, the desired behavior of bar pressing
7 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Immediate reinforcementreinforcer should follow immediately after the desired behaviorif reinforcer is delayed, the animal may be reinforced for some undesired or superstitious behaviorSuperstitious behaviorbehavior that increases in frequency because its occurrence is accidentally paired with the delivery of a reinforcer
9 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Operant versus classical conditioningOperant conditioninggoal: increase or decrease the rate of some responsevoluntary response: must perform voluntary response before getting a rewardemitted response: animals or humans are shaped to emit the desired responses
10 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Operant versus classical conditioningOperant conditioningcontingent on behavior: depends or is contingent on the consequences or what happens nextreinforcer must occur immediately after the desired responseconsequences: animals or humans learn that performing or emitting some behavior is followed by a consequence (reward or punishment)
11 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Operant versus classical conditioningClassical conditioninggoal: create a new response to a neutral stimulusinvoluntary response: physiological reflexes (salivation, eye blink)triggered or elicited by some stimulus and called involuntary responseselicited response: unconditioned stimulus triggers or elicits an involuntary reflex response, salivation, which is called the unconditioned response
12 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Operant versus classical conditioningClassical conditioningconditioned response: neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus when alone before the occurrence of the conditioned responseexpectancy: animals and humans learn a predictable relationship between, or develop an expectancy about, the neutral and unconditioned stimuliclassical conditioning leads to the animal or human learning a predictable relationship between stimuli
13 REINFORCERS (CONT.) Consequences consequences are contingent on behaviorReinforcementconsequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the chance that the behavior will occur againPunishmentconsequence that occurs after a behavior and decreases the chance that the behavior will occur again
14 REINFORCERS (CONT.) Reinforcement Positive reinforcement refers to the presentation of a stimulus that increases the probability that a behavior will occur againpositive reinforcer is a stimulus that increases the likelihood that a response will occur againNegative reinforcementrefers to an aversive stimulus whose removal increases the likelihood that the preceding response will occur again
15 REINFORCERS (CONT.) Reinforcers Primary reinforcers stimulus such as food, water, or sex, that is innately satisfying and requires no learning on the part of the subject to become pleasurableSecondary reinforcersany stimulus that has acquired its reinforcing power through experience; secondary reinforcers are learned, such as by being paired with primary reinforcers or other secondary reinforcers
16 REINFORCERS (CONT.) Punishment Positive punishment refers to presenting an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus after a responseNegative punishmentrefers to removing a reinforcing stimulus after a response
17 SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Skinner’s contributionsSchedule of reinforcementrefers to a program or rule that determines how and when the occurrence of a response will be followed by a reinforcerContinuous reinforcementevery occurrence of the operant response results in delivery of the reinforcerPartial reinforcementrefers to a situation in which responding is reinforced only some of the time
18 SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT (CONT.) Partial reinforcement schedulesFixed-ratio schedulea reinforcer occurs only after a fixed number of responses are made by the subjectFixed-interval schedulea reinforcer occurs following the first response that occurs after a fixed interval of time
19 SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT (CONT.) Partial reinforcement schedulesVariable-ratio schedulea reinforcer is delivered after an average number of correct responses has occurredVariable-interval schedulereinforcer occurs following the first correct response after an average amount of time has passed
20 OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS Generalizationan animal or a person emits the same response to similar stimulitendency for a stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response similar to the conditioned responseDiscriminationoccurs during classical conditioning when an organism learns to make a particular response to some stimuli but not to others
21 OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS (CONT.) Extinction and spontaneous recoveryExtinctionrefers to a procedure in which a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulusthe conditioned stimulus tends to no longer elicit the conditioned responseSpontaneous recoverytendency for the conditioned response to reappear after being extinguishedeven though there have been no further conditioning trials
22 COGNITIVE LEARNING Three viewpoints of cognitive learning against: B. F. SkinnerSkinner said, “As far as I’m concerned, cognitive science is the creationism (downfall) of psychology”.in favor: Edward Tolmanexplored hidden mental processescognitive mapa mental representation in the brain of the layout of an environment and its features
23 COGNITIVE LEARNING (CONT.) Three viewpoints of cognitive learningin favor: Albert BanduraBandurafocused on how humans learn through observing thingsSocial cognitive learningresults from watching, and modeling and does not require the observer to perform any observable behavior or receive any observable reward
24 COGNITIVE LEARNING (CONT.) Bandura’s social cognitive theoryemphasizes the importance of observation, imitation, and self-reward in the development and learning of social skills, personal interactions, and many other behaviorsFour processesAttentionobserver must pay attention to what the model says or doesMemoryobserver must store or remember the information so that it can be retrieved and used later
25 COGNITIVE LEARNING (CONT.) Bandura’s social cognitive theoryFour processes (cont.)Imitationobserver must be able to use the remembered information to guide his or her own actions and thus imitate the model’s behaviorMotivationobserver must have some reason or incentive to imitate the model’s behavior.
26 COGNITIVE LEARNING (CONT.) Insight learningInsighta mental process marked by the sudden and expected solution to a problem: a phenomenon often called the “ah-ha!” experience.
27 BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Definition Biological factors refer to innate tendencies or predispositions that may either facilitate or inhibit certain kinds of learningImprintingrefers to inherited tendencies or responses that are displayed by newborn animals when they encounter certain stimuli in their environment