Presentation on theme: "The Constitutional Convention Philadelphia: May-September 1787 55 Delegates."— Presentation transcript:
The Constitutional Convention Philadelphia: May-September 1787 55 Delegates
Important Delegates: Alexander Hamilton – suggested the need for a national convention to improve the national government George Washington - presided over the meetings
Important Delegates: - cont. Edmund Randolph - proposed a new stronger national government in place of the Articles. Ben Franklin – his presence encouraged participation Gouveneur Morris – wrote the final draft of the Constitution (organized it)
Important Delegates - cont. Roger Sherman - suggested the Great Compromise George Mason – suggested adding a bill of rights to the Constitution James Madison – creator of the Virginia plan. Often called the Father of the Constitution because he wrote the basic plan of government that the Convention adopted. William Paterson – created the New Jersey Plan.
The Virginia Plan James Madison developed the Virginia Plan. It called for: 1.a bicameral or two-house legislature 2.a chief executive (chosen by the legislature) and 3.a federal court system. Representation would be based on population. Popular with the bigger states because: MORE PEOPLE = MORE REPRESENTATIVES
The New Jersey Plan William Paterson proposed keeping the Articles of Confederation, but fixing the problems. Known as the New Jersey Plan. It called for: 1.a one-house legislature, with one vote per state (basically staying the same) 2.however, Congress could tax and regulate trade and 3.a weak executive branch would be established with a council running it. popular with the smaller states because: ALL STATES ARE EQUAL
Need for Compromise Change the Articles or start over…? On June 19, delegates agreed that it was necessary to build a new national government based on the Virginia Plan, but they still needed to solve the argument of representation.
The Great Compromise Roger Sherman suggested a bicameral legislature that combined both plans: A LOWER HOUSE: The House of Representatives – where Representation would be based on population (the Virginia Plan) and A UPPER HOUSE: The Senate - where each state would have two members (the New Jersey Plan) Both houses would have to pass all laws. The big states and the small states were satisfied.
Need for Compromise #2 Should slaves be counted for Representation? - The North said “No,” not while they were enslaved. - The South said “Yes.” (It would give them more power in the House.)
The Three-Fifths Compromise After much debate, the Convention decided 3/5 of the slave population would count for taxation and representation. 5 ENSLAVED PEOPLE=3 FREE PEOPLE This became known as the 3/5’s Compromise.
Need for Compromise #3 Slave Trade: The North had banned slave trade and wanted the South to do the same. The South considered slavery essential to their economy and were not willing to change. Compromise: Congress could not interfere with the slave trade for at least more 20 years.
Bill of Rights George Mason proposed that the Constitution should have a Bill of Rights, but his motion was defeated. Most delegates felt the Constitution’s careful listing of government powers was adequate protection of individual rights They also, believed it would be impossible to list all of the rights that people have.
Approving the Constitution On September 17, 1787, the Constitution was signed by the delegates in Philadelphia. All delegates signed it except Elbridge Gerry, Edmund Randolph and George Mason. They insisted that it needed a Bill of Rights. Ratification: The last decision the delegates of the Constitutional Convention made was that 9 of the 13 states would have to ratify the Constitution in order for it to become the new law of the land.
Ratification Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution on December 7, 1787. By June 1788, the Constitution was ratified by the 9 states it needed to pass. However, among the four states that had not ratified it were New York and Virginia. With Patrick Henry leading the way, these states refused to ratify it until a bill of rights was added. After promising to add a bill of rights, the Constitution was eventually ratified by all 13 states.