Presentation on theme: "EYE WITNESS TESTIMONY. WHAT IS EYE WITNESS TESTIMONY? Question – write your answer on your mini-whiteboards – What is an Eyewitness Testimony? AQA Definition:"— Presentation transcript:
WHAT IS EYE WITNESS TESTIMONY? Question – write your answer on your mini-whiteboards – What is an Eyewitness Testimony? AQA Definition: The evidence given in court or in a police investigation by someone who who has witnessed a crime or and accident.
1. HOW ACCURATE IS A PERSONS EWT? 30 Years’ of research suggests that EWT is highly unreliable. Wells (1998) studied 40 people who were convicted, then released by conclusive DNA evidence. More than 90% were wrongly convicted by inaccurate eyewitness testimony. Sadly, it was too late for 5 of these people…
WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS Ronald Cotton spent 11 years in prison for two counts of rape which he didn’t commit. He was picked out of a line up two victims who misidentified him. Bobby Poole later confessed to two counts of rape.
YOU HAVE NOW WITNESSED A MURDER… Task – On your mini-whiteboards write down EVERYTHING you can remember about the murderer? What did he/she look like? What were they wearing? Etc…
CAN YOU CORRECTLY IDENTIFY THE CRIMINAL… Now you have a go at being an eye witnesses. Can you pick out the criminal from an identity parade? http://www.open2.net/eyewitness/line_up_graham_pike.html http://www.open2.net/eyewitness/line_up_graham_pike.html
WHAT FACTORS AFFECT THE ACCURACY OF EWT? Question: In group, consider why it was so difficult for you (the eye-witness) to identify the criminal…then write (on your mini-whiteboards) what factors can affect the accuracy of EWT…
THE FACTORS… For you exam, you will need to understand how three different factors affect the reliability of EWT, including: Anxiety Age of Witness Misleading information
WHAT PART OF THE PICTURE DO YOUR EYES FOCUS ON? You will now see a series of pictures. Try to remember what part of the picture your eyes focus on, when you see each of the pictures…
ACTIVITY Read Loftus (1979 and answer the following questions: What was the aim of her experiment? What was the independent variable in the experiment? What was the dependent variable ? Write a directional hypothesis for the experiment (taking into account the weapon focus effect)
ANSWERS Aim: To see if anxiety effects EWT IV: The two situations observed (weapon vs. no weapon) DV: The % of participants that could accurately identify the man walking out of the laboratory. Directional Hypothesis: Participants exposed to the situation involving a weapon will make less accurate identifications of the man compared to participants exposed to the situation involving no weapon.
EVALUATING RESEARCH Methodological Issues Sample issues Ethical issues Any problems with the method (procedure) of the study e.g. the tasks they had to do or where the study was carried out. Did the psychologist adhere to the code of ethics? Are there any problems with the sample.
EVALUATING RESEARCH Methodological Issues Sample issues Ethical issues Her study was artificial, why? Thus, we say it lacked ecological validity. May have caused distress to participants when they saw the blooded knife-protection from harm. Participants were all from America. Thus, we say her sample lacked population validity. Ethnocentric sample.
YOUR TURN TO EVALUATE IN GROUPS… 1) Summaries your study – aim, method, result and conclusion (in less than 100 words). 2) Evaluate your study using the headings… Methodological issues Sample issues Ethical issues Use your notes and text books to help you Table 1 - Bower’s study Table 2 - Milgram's study Table 3 - Peterson & Peterson’s study Table 4 - Miller’s study Table 5 -Bahrick’s study