__________________ – something that tends to establish or disprove a fact ◦ Ex: documents, testimony & other objects 2 types of Evidence: ◦ ____________________ – statement made under oath ◦ ______________ – any object or material relevant in a crime.
Testimonial or Direct Evidence ◦ _________________ accounts provide important evidence & can lead to an arrest ◦ ____________ can be easily _________________ by eyewitness identification Accuracy of eyewitnesses: ◦ ________________ & ______________________ at crime scene ◦ ___________________________ errors ____________________ passing between crime & questioning of witness __________________________ affects memory ____________________________ techniques __________ known cases of an innocent person being convicted happened because of a _________________ eyewitness identification
Physical evidence ◦ Forensic scientist looks at evidence & determines its ___________________ & __________________. Determines both: _________________________ Ex: color, density, solubility, hardness &refractive index ______________ properties – can be observed when the object or substance changes its chemical composition or reacts with other chemicals Ex: bubbles, color change, pH change, or precipitate ◦ Origin of evidence needs to be determined by __________ the substance or object with something similar or the same from a _______________ origin
_______________ evidence – temporary ◦ Usually observed by the __ officer on the science & must be recorded at that time. Ex: _________________ ____________________ of coffee pot, car hood, etc. _______________ & indentations like footprints, fingerprints, etc. ________________ Evidence – produced by a specific action or event at the scene & must be observed & recorded ◦ Ex: doors locked or unlocked
______________ evidence – does ___________ prove a fact __________________ evidence – _________ a fact or event without actually proving it. ◦ ________ circumstantial evidence gathered – more ______ it carries ◦ Probability & statistics are used with circumstantial evidence to __________ the pool of suspects
Read Case Study 2.1 – Coral Eugene Watts Read Case Study 2.2 – Ronald Cotton What type of evidence did the courts have? ◦ Mark the evidence as testimonial or physical. Was the police sketch accurate? Conviction – correct/incorrect? Why?
CRIMINALS You will be divided up into groups (3-5 per group) to perform a crime skit. Skits should be about 5 minutes long & include: ◦ Crime ◦ Setting ◦ Victim ◦ Perpetrator ◦ Dialogue Write your skit, assign roles, gather props (HW) Tomorrow – rehearse skit, time skit, & perform skit
WITNESSING A CRIME SKIT Clear your desk & simple “witness” the crime skit
Value of physical evidence ◦ Can _______________ that a crime has been committed & sets the scene for investigation Ex: broken glass & paint left on/by a building ◦ Can _____________or ________________ a witness’ testimony Ex: DNA testing ◦ _______ suspect & victim at a _______ scene Ex: hit & run accident ◦ _______________________ of criminals Ex: Fingerprints ◦ Allows investigators to _________________ a crime Ex: blood spatter
Forensic scientists’ job: ◦ Receive physical evidence from police or crime scene investigators for ________________ ◦ Determine connections between the evidence, victim, crime scene & suspect Methods: ◦ Comparing questioned/__________ samples (Q) to ______________ sample (K) Ex: paint found at scene & comparing it to a car of the suspect ____________ sample is a sample that is expected to respond in a particular way & is used to _________________ the testing to those of the questioned & known samples.
_______________ Evidence – the ______ type of evidence because it can be linked to a unique, single, specific source. ◦ Ex: fingerprints, handwriting, DNA ______________ evidence – most common type of evidence & has characteristics common to a group of similar objects or group but not a single object. ◦ Ex: blue jeans
Read pgs. 43 & 44 Working with your desk partner use probability & class evidence to determine what percent of Avon students would fit this description. Use 2700 students for the school population. Blue jeans Zippered hoodie Long blond hair Glasses Black athletic shoes
DISCUSSION: Can class evidence be useful? Did the probative value increase as the number of variables increased? What would happen to the value of the class evidence if it happened on a day when students were wearing school colors & blue jeans?
CASE STUDIES – Read case studies 2.3 & 2.4 on pg. 48 & 49 & answer the following questions. Case 2.3 – What other type of evidence could have been gathered from the notebook & the note? Case 2.4 – If you were on the jury, would you have accepted one one-thousandth of a human body sufficient amount to convict? Of the 4 case studies read in this chapter what were the 2 lucky coincidences helped lead to the perpetrator? Do you feel lucky coincidences occur in most cases, some cases, or hardly ever?
Read pg. 52 The class will be divided into pro/con on this topic. You & your partner will do the research based on your position. Each group will be writing a paper with the following points: ◦ Title ◦ Author ◦ Introduction ◦ Pro or Con side ◦ Support ◦ Personal opinion ◦ Works cited