Presentation on theme: "Starter On a blank piece of paper, write down any key terms relating to the COGNITIVE approach These could be related to theories, research, evaluations,"— Presentation transcript:
Starter On a blank piece of paper, write down any key terms relating to the COGNITIVE approach These could be related to theories, research, evaluations, methods...
Syllabus Cognitive Psychology Models of Memory Define key terms – encoding, duration, capacity Describe and evaluate The Multi Store model Describe and evaluate the working memory model Memory in everyday Life Factors affecting EWT (misleading info, anxiety, age of witness) Research of LOFTUS Cognitive Interview Strategies for memory improvement
1. Multi Store Model Developed by... Revolutionary because it was the first theory to suggest... How many different stores? Need to mention –ENCODING, DURATION and CAPACITY features of each store –How info is passed between each store and how info is lost from each store
Multi Store Model - complete on the A3! (7 mins)
Evaluation Evidence which indicates we have separate memory stores (e.g. An LTM & STM) –Case studies (Clive Wearing; HM [epilepsy]) NB. Do not go into LOTS of detail about each case! Results and Conclusions –Lab Experiments (e.g. Glazer and Cunitz - Serial position effect which demonstrated…) –Brain scans Problems with these methods? Theoretical Advancement – The MSM was revolutionary for it’s time because it was the first to suggest... But the MSM is too simplistic – critics argue that the STM & LTM should be split into separate stores (LTM should have 3 sub stores = P_________, E_________, S__________) –Support – KF (normal visual STM, impaired verbal STM; Working memory model) Rehearsal not as important as the model suggests
2. Working Memory Model Developed by... Focus on which part of Memory? How many components? Be sure to mention how the different components interact and the features of each store (encoding, duration, capacity)
Working Memory Model - complete on the A3 with detail (7mins)
Evaluation of the WMM Evidence that STM has separate components –Baddeley’s DUAL TASK studies... –Case study of KF – brain damage due to _________. Normal VISUAL STM ability but impaired V________ STM, shows we have separate memory components for these aspects Problems with supporting research –Low ecological validity / mundane realism of lab experiments. Problem because… –Low population validity of case studies because… which means… Incomplete – role of the Central Executive is still unclear (little research into this component) Limited – focus purely on STM with little reference made to other aspects of memory. For a complete view of memory in general, we have to combine the WMM with other theories (such as the MSM) –Be VERY careful with this point!
3. Eyewitness testimony Factors which influence EWT –MISLEADING INFORMATION (leading questions) –ANXIETY –AGE OF WITNESS Research into each is key in this section –“Discuss research into...” Describe research = I, A, M& P, R, C (“this shows...”) Evaluate = focus on methodology issues and sample –12 mark essay = minimum of TWO studies described and evaluated
EWT – Misleading Info Misleading info/ Leading Qs ‘fill in the gaps’ of the memories of the witnesses Key Study – LOFTUS and PALMER –Describe –Evaluate lab exp so… unrealistic task… sample issues so… TRY TO BE SPECIFIC with evaluations, e.g. low mundane realism because Loftus used a VIDEO clip of a car accident. This is unrealistic and may have resulted in unnatural behaviour from the participants (won’t have been paying attenition in the same way) Alternative findings from Yuille and Cutshall
EWT - Anxiety Anxiety disrupts the processing of information leading to errors. High anxiety events may also be ‘r__________’ to protect us from the stress caused by the memory Key study e.g. – LOFTUS and BURNS –Describe –Evaluate (same points as with all Loftus research) Y_______-D_______ law (inverted U) offers a more complete explanation as it states…
EWT – Age of Witness Children and the elderly are thought to make less accurate witness testimony. Why? –Children report more info but also more inaccurate info – why? –Children also more influenced by leading Qs – why? –Elderly give inaccurate EWT because of influence of schemas and... –EXTENSION - Also evidence of OWN AGE BIAS Key Studies (e.g.) –POOLE and LINDSAY (children) –COHEN and FAULKNER
4. Improving EWT Cognitive interview Uses different techniques compared to standard interview (standard interview = closed questions, conducted in police interview room, etc) Techniques of the C.I... –R_______ E______________ –C_______ R_____________ –REPORT FROM A D______ P______________ –REPORT IN R___________ O____________ Make sure you can describe each / say how they would be used!
Evaluation of the C.I Evidence of effectiveness –Geiselman: CI more effective and leads to more accurate EWT compared to standard interview However, there is evidence that the C.I leads to more info being recalled but a greater degree of inaccurate info Also, there are Practical Disadvantages with the C.I –Why? Also there are potential Ethical issues because the witness has to relive the event in detail which means…
5. Memory Improvement Strategies Must be able to outline the strategy and say WHY it improves memory (use psychological theory). Ideally, also support your ideas with research and be able to outline problems with the techniques DO NOT JUST SAY ‘MNEMONICS’ AS A STRATEGY – THIS IS TOO GENERAL!
Memory Improvement Strategies Organisational Hierarchies (e.g. Mind maps) can be used –Improve memory because they... Create links and associations between info which may T_______ and C_____ Leads to elaborative (deep) rehearsal Leads to D______ C________ of info (visual and verbal codes created)
Memory Improvement strategies VISUAL MNEMONICS and VERBAL MNEMONICS, e.g. –Peg Word method which involves… –Method of loci which involves… –Acronyms and acrostics Visual mnemonic techniques Improve memory because they... –Lead to elaborative rehearsal & Dual coding –Visual info serves as triggers / cues Any problems? Other strategies State dependent techniques / Context dependent learning – improve memory by reinstating the context at the time of learning –Provides triggers and cues (psychological) –Godden and Baddeley ‘divers’ study supports Chunking which is… And improves memory because…
Key Studies Clive Wearing; Glazer and Cunitz – MSM (evidence of separate STM and LTM) KF Baddeley’s ‘dual task’ studies – WMM (evidence of separate (visual and verbal) components in STM Loftus and Palmer (effect of misleading info on EWT) Loftus and Burns (effect of anxiety of EWT) Yuille and Cutshall (misleading info and high anxiety actually have no effect on EWT accuracy) Poole and Lindsay (children and EWT) Cohen and Faulkner (elderly and EWT) Geiselman (effectiveness of the cognitive interview)