Presentation on theme: "Immigration and Urbanization in the Industrial Age"— Presentation transcript:
1 Immigration and Urbanization in the Industrial Age
2 Industrialization and Immigration Introduction:Millions of immigrants came to the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries seeking a better lifeMost wanted to escape difficult conditions such as:PovertyFamineLand shortagesReligious or political persecution
3 Industrialization and Immigration Immigrants from Europe:million immigrants mainly from England, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia, and other places in Northwestern Europe.million immigrants mainly from Northwestern Europemillion immigrants came from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe. They were Austro-Hungarian, Turkish, Lithuanian, Russian, Jewish, Greek, Italian, and Romanian
5 Industrialization and Immigration Immigrants from China and Japan:Between 1851 and 200,000 Chinese arrivedMany sought goldMany helped build the 1st transcontinental railroadIn 1884 the Japanese government allowed Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workers = Japanese emigration boomBy 1920 there were 200,000+ Japanese living on the West Coast
6 Industrialization and Immigration Immigrants from the West Indies and Mexico:Between 1880 and 1920 about 260,000 immigrants from the West Indies (Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and other islands) came to the U.S.Many Mexicans became Americans in the mid-late 1800s because of various land acts and some came in search of jobs and farmland
7 CHART OF IMMIGRATION 1820 TO 1980 1900 THIS CHART SHOWS THE RISE AND FALL OF IMMIGRATION THROUGHOUT U.S. HISTORY. THE “WAVES OF IMMIGRATION” SLIDE EXPLAINS WHICH GROUPS WERE COMING AT WHICH POINT IN HISTORY.
8 Industrialization and Immigration Life in the New Land for Immigrants: no matter where they came from, immigrants faced many adjustmentsDifficult journey by steamshipTrip usually took 1 – 3 weeksMany traveled in steerage or in cargo holdsDiseases spread and many died before they reached their destinationEllis Island – immigration station in New YorkPhysical examination, literacy test, proof they were able to work , and $25Many detained for days or possibly sent homeBetween 1892 and 1943, 16 million immigrants passed through
9 Industrialization and Immigration Life in the New Land for Immigrants:Angel Island – immigration station in San Francisco BayKnown for harsh questioning, long detentions and cruel treatment of the immigrants
18 1910 CENSUS: FOREIGN BORN RESIDENTS IN US CITIES.
19 Industrialization and Immigration Life in the New Land for immigrantsCulture Shock – confusion and anxiety resulting from immersion into a culture whose ways of thinking and acting you don’t understandImmigrants struggled to find jobs, housing, and function in daily lifeEthnic communities sprang up in areas that had large concentrations of immigrants
20 NEW IMMIGRANTS TENDED TO MOVE WHERE THEY KNEW PEOPLE FROM THE OLD WORLD CITIES, UNLIKE THE OLD IMMIGRANTS THE NEW IMMIGRANTS WERE MORE LIKELY TO STAY IN THE LARGE CITIES AND NOT GO AND FARM .
21 Industrialization and Immigration Immigration restrictions: as growing numbers of immigrants entered the country, strong anti-immigrant feelings emerged and the government reacted by passing legislation that restricted immigrationNativism – favoritism toward native-born AmericansThis paved the way for anti-immigrant groups and led to a demand for immigration restrictionsPeople from Asian countries often received the worst treatment!
22 Industrialization and Immigration Immigration restrictions:Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882Banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials1902 immigration was prohibited indefinitelyrepealed in 1943
23 INTENDED EFFECT OF THE CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT OF 1882 CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT, 1882 ACT THAT STOPPED IMMIGRATION FROM CHINA.HOW ARE ORIENTALS PORTRAYED I N THE CARTOON? AS ANIMALS
24 Industrialization and Immigration Immigration restrictions:Gentlemen’s Agreement ofResponse to Anti-Japanese sentiment on the West CoastJapanese government agreed to limit emigration to the U.S.
25 Urbanization Urbanization = the growth of cities Promise of industrial jobs drew millions of people to the American citiesUrban population explodedJumping from 10 million to 54 million between 1870 and 1920Urban growth revitalized cities and created serious problems
26 Urbanization Reasons for Urbanization OPPORTUNITY– work, to escape poverty, and gain a better life for themselves and their childrenNew technology created new mills, factories, mines and transportation systems that needed workersNew agricultural equipment meant fewer laborers were needed and people had to find other types of employmentCultural opportunities
27 UrbanizationUrban Problems: city governments faced serious problems when dealing with rapid urbanizationHousing: tenement homes were overcrowded and unsanitaryTransportation: mass transit was needed to accommodate the large populationCable cars, electric streetcars, electric subwaysCities struggled to keep the transportation systems in good repair and to build new ones
28 IMMIGRANT NEIGHBORHOODS IN NEW YORK CITY: LATER HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY
29 NEW INVENTIONS MADE RAPID URBAN GROWTH POSSIBLE TECHNOLOGICAL BREAKTHROUGHS, NEW SCIENTIFIC AND MECHANICAL INVENTIONS THAT REVOLUTIONIZED HOUSING, TRANSPORTATION MAKING RAPID URBAN GROWTH POSSIBLE.
30 RAPID TRANSIT IN THE 19TH CENTURY MASS TRANSIT, A WAY TO TRANSPORT LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE. INVENTIONS AND INNOVATIONS ALLOWED CITIES TO BECOME BIGGER AND EXPAND HORIZONTALLY AS WELL AS VERTICALLY.
31 MASS TRANSPORTATION MOVES UNDERGROUND WITH THE FIRST SUBWAYS SUBWAY SYSTEM, FIRST BUILT IN BOSTON IN 1897.
32 UrbanizationUrban Problems: city governments faced serious problems when dealing with rapid urbanizationWater: cities struggled to supply fresh waterSanitation: dirty streets, polluted air, no sewage removalFire: deadly fires broke out in all American citiesCrime: lack of full-time police force = thieves, con men, and gangsCorruption: rapid growth of cities led to corrupt local governments!These problems , and many others, led to the Progressive Reform movement!!!
33 IMMIGRANT (JEWISH) NEIGHBORHOOD IN NEW YORK CITY HESTER STREET, NYC
34 PROBLEMS IN THE NEW CITIES: SLUMS The majority of working class people lived crowded together in slums made up of tenements, cheap apartment buildings, row houses and boarding houses.
35 Politics in the Gilded Age In the late 19th century, cities experienced rapid growth under inefficient government. In a climate influenced by dog-eat-dog Social Darwinism, cities were receptive to a new power structure, the political machines, and a new politician, the city boss.
36 WHY WERE CITIES SO CORRUPT? CITIES GREW SO FAST, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS COULD NOT HANDLE ITIMMIGRANTS FROM SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPE HAD NO KNOWLEDGE OF DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY AND WERE EASY PREY FOR BOSSESBUSINESSMEN WERE CLOSELY LINKED WITH BOSSES MAKING CORRUPTION HARD TO FIGHT
37 BIG CITY BOSSES POSITIVES NEGATIVES HELPED POOR IMMIGRANTS WITH FOOD AND JOBSTHEY WERE CORRUPT AND STOLE THE PEOPLE’S MONEYTHEY PERFORMED NEEDED FUNCTIONS THAT REGULAR CITY OFFICIALS COULD NOTBOSSES PROTECTED VICE AND ENCOURAGEDMONOPOLIES