2 Where did they come from? Between 1870 – million Europeans arrived in the United States.Where did they come from?Push FactorsPull FactorsReligious persecution (Jews in Russia)“American Dream”Fleeing the rising population in EuropeHopes to Strike in Rich “Gold Rush” (Chinese)Political/Social Instability (Mexico, West Indies)Jobs – railroad, farmlands,Higher paying wages compared to homeJob scarcity (Europe, West Indies)New Territories (Hawaii, Mexican Territories) = new job opportunitiesInfluenced by revolt and reform (France, Germany)Political stability, freedom…etc..
4 Ellis Island – New York harbor Immigrants had to:Pass inspectionsHealth –unhealthy not allowedGov. Inspector QuestioningLiteracy test$2520% detained for 1+ days2% were returned homeProcessing could last up to 5 hours.
5 Angel island – San Francisco West coast processing center.Mainly Chinese and Japanese immigrantsConditions were deplorableHarsh treatmentJail-like holding cellsExtensive detention and questioning
6 Culture shockNew immigrants experienced confusion and anxiety as they adjusted to American life.Culture, language, customs, way of thinking..etcThey became targets for thieves or others to take advantage.Challenges – finding a home, work, and language barriers.Ethnic communitiesImmigrants began to group together and live in common areas.Supported each other to build churches, stores, and other community spaces
7 Immigrant reaction to angel island Immigrants reacted to their new homes through poetry on the walls of the barracks.Instead of remaining a citizen of China, I willingly became an ox. I intended to come to America to earn a living. The Western styled buildings are lofty; but I have not the luck to live in them. How was anyone to know that my dwelling place would be a prison?Reprinted with permission from University of Washington Press.
8 AssimilationThe act of combining previous cultural practices with those found in the United States and abandoning native languages and customs.“A melting pot”Immigrants did not want to abandon their culture.Growing immigrant population = growing anti-immigrant sentiment.
9 nativism Nativism - Favoritism towards native-born Americans Led to distrust of immigrantsProtestants feared growing population Roman Catholics and Jews.Prejudice and social attacks towards the “undesirables”.nativism
10 Anti-Asian sentiment Cause Effect Growing anti-Chinese sentiment during depressing. (compete for jobs)Prejudice and segregation of Japanese, Korean and Chinese children in San Francisco. This caused riots in Japan.Chinese Exclusion Act: Forbid the immigration of any Chinese person except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials. *not repealed until 1943*Pressure on President Theodore Roosevelt from Japanese leaders led to the Gentlemen’s Agreement: Japan would limit the number of emigrants to the USA.