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Ethics in Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethics in Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethics in Research

2 Participating in Research
How would you have felt if you participated in Dr. Venkman’s study? Participating in Research

3 History of Ethics 1947 – Nuremberg Code
Developed post WWII in response to the inhumane research performed by Nazi doctors on prisoners 1st attempt to develop guidelines for research with human participants History of Ethics

4 Nuremberg Code Guidelines Participation is voluntary
Subjects must be informed Research must address important questions Avoid unnecessary harm Benefits > Risks Researchers must be qualified Ability to withdraw Research must be discontinued if it is harmful Nuremberg Code

5 APA Guide 1953 Based on the Nuremberg Code
Psychologist held to standards Guidelines Informed Consent Deception Risks vs. Benefits Confidentiality APA Guide 1953

6 Ethical Guidelines Ethics – people should be treated as ends not means
Designed to protect the rights of human and animals APA ethics code “…it has as its goals the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom the psychologists work…” Ethical Guidelines

7 Ethical Responsibilities
Researcher responsibilities to science to participants Examples of unethical behaviors fabrication of results harming participants Ethical Responsibilities

8 Ethical Issues No harm Psychological or physical
If P is harmed, benefit > cost e.g., an effective treatment with side effects Ethical Issues

9 Ethical Issues Informed Consent Information about study
Risks and benefits Voluntary No coercion Withdraw at any time Ethical Issues

10 Ethical Issues Consent Form Consent – competent Ps
Ps sign to verify understanding Consent – competent Ps Assent – incompetent Ps guardians e.g., developmentally disabled people Ethical Issues

11 Ethical Issues Deception Two Types
Ps do not know true purpose of research Two Types Passive – information is left out e.g., no knowledge of memory test Ethical Issues

12 Ethical Issues Active – information is inaccurate
e.g., cover story Milgram (1965) Confederate - role-plays. Ethical Issues

13 Ethical Issues Debriefing
Purpose of study is explained to Ps upon completion Reduces harmful effects of deception Ethical Issues

14 Ethical Issues Confidentiality Anonymity
Ps information will be kept secret e.g., memory, opinions, sexual orientation, etc. Anonymity Ps name is not associated with data e.g., Ps are assigned a number Ethical Issues

15 Protection of Human Rights - IRB
Institutional Review Board (IRB) Committee who approves research proposals IRB Forms Protection of Human Rights - IRB

16 Protection of Human Rights - IRB
IRB Criteria Minimize risk Benefits > Risks Equal opportunity sampling Informed consent Documentation of consent Data monitoring Privacy & Confidentiality Protection of Human Rights - IRB

17 Animal Rights Why do we use animals? To understand animals
To understand humans To conduct research that cannot be conducted on humans Animal Rights

18 Overseen by a separate committee at many institutions
ISU has the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) Different Guidelines for animal subjects Research with Animals

19 Research with Animals Justification Justify the use of animals
Justify the benefits of the study Justify the use of a particular species Research with Animals

20 Research with Animals Care and Treatment
Only trained researchers can handle animals Animals must be kept in good health Housing must meet federal guidelines Degarmo’s lost animal colony Research with Animals

21 Research with Animals Acquisition of Animals Must be bred humanely OR
Must be obtained from others who obtianed or bred the animals humanely Research with Animals

22 Research with Animals Procedures during study
Minimize discomfort of animals Greater discomfort = Greater need for justification Surgical procedures must be carefully overseen Animals raised in the lab cannot be released into the wild Research with Animals

23 Scientific Integrity Two issues: Fraud & Plagiarism
Fraud – a conscious misrepresentation of data by a researcher Plagiarism – taking credit for another’s work or ideas Why fraud – to obtain publications Fraud prevention Replication – repeat a research study to validate results Peer Review – critical analysis of research by peers in the same area Plagiarism - Avoided by citing the ideas or words of others Scientific Integrity

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