2 Tenants for Ethics in Research Protecting participants from physical and psychological harm.Providing freedom of choice about participating in research.Maintaining awareness of the power differentials between researchers and participants.Honestly describing the nature and use of the research to participants.
3 APA Guidelines on Research General PrinciplesInformed ConsentDeceptionDebriefing
4 General PrinciplesPsychologists respect and protect civil and human rights and the central importance of freedom of inquiry and expression in research, teaching, and publication. Psychologists obtain appropriate approval prior to conducting research. They conduct the research in accordance with the approved research protocol.
5 Informed Consent Psychologists inform participants about: The purpose of the research, expected duration, and procedures.Their right to decline to participate and to withdraw once the participation has begun.Reasonably foreseeable factors that may be expected to influence their willingness to participate.Any prospective research benefits.Whom to contact for questions about the research and research participants’ rights.
6 DeceptionPsychologists do not use deception unless justified by significant scientific, educational, or applied value dictates.Psychologists do not deceive participants that is expected to cause physical pain or severe emotional distress.Psychologists explain any deception as early as feasible to participants (but no later than at the conclusion of data collection).
7 DebriefingPsychologists provide a prompt opportunity for participants to obtain appropriate information about the nature, results, and conclusions of the research.If scientific or humane values justify delaying or withholding information, psychologists take reasonable measures to reduce the risk of harm.
8 Securing Informed Consent U.S. Department of Health and Human Services A statement that the study involves research and the expected duration of the participation; a description of the procedures to be followed, and identification of any procedures which are experimentalA description of any reasonably foreseeable risks or discomforts to the participantA description of any benefits to the participant or to others which may reasonably be expected from the research
9 Securing Informed Consent Cont. U. S Securing Informed Consent Cont. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services4. A disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures or courses of treatment, if any, that might be advantageous to the participant 5. A statement describing the extent, if any, to which confidentiality of records identifying the participant will be maintained 6. For research involving more than minimal risk, an explanation as to whether any compensation is to be made and an explanation as to whether any medical treatments are available if injury occurs and, if so, what they consist of, or where further information may be obtained
10 Securing Informed Consent Cont. U. S Securing Informed Consent Cont. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services7. An explanation of whom to contact for answers to pertinent questions about the research and research participants’ rights, and whom to contact in the event of a research-related injury to the participant 8. A statement that participation is voluntary, refusal to participate will involve no penalty or loss of benefits to which the participant is otherwise entitled, and the participant may discontinue participation at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which the participant is otherwise entitled
14 Guidelines for Ethical Research with Animals Must have IACUC approval. (Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee)IACUCs are designed to protect animals by reviewing how they:Will be treated in each study.Are cared for before all studies.Are cared for after all studies.This committee also conducts inspections.IACUCs are at institutions that conduct research and receive government funding.Must treat all animals humanely.The lab must comply with federal, state & local laws & regulations, and with professional standards in obtaining, caring, using, & disposing of animal participants.Trained professionals must supervise all procedures.All handlers must also be trained.Pain must be justified by value.
15 Informed Consent Animals can’t give consent. At least, not most animals. ;)Q: Are all experiments on an animal’s behavior unethical, then?
16 Animal Rights Vs. Animal Welfare Believe that:It is ethically wrong to conduct research on animals.Animals are living & therefore have the same rights as humans.Most animal research involves pain.Researchers are not concerned with humane treatment of animals.SpeciesismDiscrimination against animals on the basis of speciesApplied to those doing animal research, eating meat, & wearing animal products.Believe that:Animals do not have the same rights as humans.Humans are responsible for the humane treatment of animals.Most modern medicine has been developed from animal testing.How many humans would have died had animals not been used in research?The humane treatment of animals is crucial.94% of animal research doesn’t involve pain.Of those that do, most of the animals are anesthetized.Bound by IACUC-Animals have rights, get proper food, & health care.