Presentation on theme: "Conducting Ethical Research Slides Prepared by Alison L. O’Malley Passer Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:
Conducting Ethical Research Slides Prepared by Alison L. O’Malley Passer Chapter 3
Codes of Research Ethics What is/are ethics? Ethical concerns permeate every aspect of the research process. Name and describe a historical event that influenced contemporary research ethics codes. 4
The Nuremberg Code (1947) Set of ethical principles essential for medical experiments to be “permissible” (also applies to behavioral research) Voluntary consent with freedom to withdraw at any time Information prior to giving consent about research purpose and potential risks Avoidance of unnecessary risk Results should be of sufficient value to outweigh risks to participants Qualified scientists must conduct the research
The Belmont Report (1979) Respect Beneficence Justice Concerns for these ethical principles govern participant selection, consent, and risk- benefit assessment. 4
APA Ethics Code (2010) Beneficence and nonmaleficence (huh?) Fidelity and responsibility Integrity Justice Respect How does each principle apply to the conduction of psychological science?
Institutional Review: The IRB Who sits on your institution’s IRB? How does your IRB assess the degree of risk to participants? What’s the difference between anonymity and confidentiality? 4
The IRB Exempt Expedited Full Review Describe each form of IRB review.
Types of Harm Physical harm (e.g., pain) Psychological harm (e.g., anxiety) Social harm and loss of privacy (e.g., sensitive information disclosed) Economic or legal harm (e.g., accident after research-induced sleep deprivation) Considered in judging degree of risk to participants
Excerpt of Sample Informed Consent I have been fully informed of the above-described procedure with its possible benefits and risks. I understand that I may view my responses at a later date and be fully de- briefed on them if I so desire. I also understand that my responses will be maintained in a confidential manner by the researcher. I voluntarily give permission for my participation in this study. I know that the investigator and her associates will be available to answer any questions I may have. I understand that I am free to withdraw this consent and discontinue participation in this project at any time without penalty. I am also aware that I will receive a copy of this Informed Consent form for my records at this time. Participant Signature ________________________________________ 4
Informed Consent What other elements must be reflected in an informed consent? Is informed consent absolutely necessary? 4
Basic Elements of Informed Consent 1. Purpose and nature of research 2. Anticipated risks, discomforts, adverse effects 3. Anticipated benefits 4. Alternative procedures or treatments 5. Confidentiality and limits to confidentiality 6. Incentives and compensation 7. Contact information 8. Voluntary participation and freedom to discontinue participation
Informed Consent How does assent come into play when working with vulnerable populations? 4
Deception Passive deception: Researchers withhold info that might influence participants’ decision to provide informed consent Active deception: Researchers mislead participants about some aspect of a study If participants receive bogus negative feedback about their task performance, what sort of deception is this? Is it justifiable?
Deception How was deception employed in Milgram’s (1963, 1974) obedience studies? Identify the confederate(s)
Debriefing Thanks. Bye now. What are the elements of a thorough debriefing?
Nonhuman Animal Research Why is psychological research conducted on animals? Animal Welfare Act regulates use of warm- blooded animals with exception of mice, rats, and birds
Institutional Review: The IRB Who sits on your institution’s IACUC? Ethical standards for animal research revolve around Reduction Refinement Replacement Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare 4
Tell Your Story with Integrity Represent yourself accurately Report results ethically Fabrication and falsification are FRAUD …and what about questionable research practices (QRPs)? Should data stay or go?
Tell Your Story with Integrity Does an idea belong to you, or did it originate with someone else? Did you know it’s possible to plagiarize yourself? Paraphrase and cite with care!
When it comes to research ethics, there are many shades of grey… Ask critical questions. Seek advice from trusted teachers and mentors. You’re not in this alone!