Ethics People should be treated as ends not means.
Published byModified over 4 years ago
Presentation on theme: "Ethics People should be treated as ends not means."— Presentation transcript:
Ethics People should be treated as ends not means
Ethical Responsibilities in Research Ethics in Steps How are participants selected? –Is there any bias in the way the participants were selected? –Do the participants understand their participation is voluntary? –Do the participants understand they can withdrawal their participation at any time?
Ethical Responsibilities in Research Ethics in Steps What methods will be used on the participants? –Will participants be harmed by the methods? –Does the method involve deception? If so, can the deception be avoided or justly explained? –Will there be any short or long term side effects from the method used?
Ethical Responsibilities in Research Ethics in Steps How are the data analyzed? –Is the privacy of the participant secured? How are the results reported? –Is the privacy of the participant secured? –How will the participants be informed of the results, if necessary?
Institutional Review Board Scientific Validity –Determines if the experiment will yield useful data Risk/Benefit Analysis –Adequate safety monitoring –Exclusion of populations at increased risk –Coding of Data –Adequately trained research personnel –Physical, Psychological, Social, Economic and Legal risks all evaluated –Severity, duration, and reversibility are also considered parts of the risk –Financial compensation is not considered a benefit »http://www.oprs.ucla.edu/human/documents/pdf/19.pdf
Institutional Review Board Subject Recruitment –Special groups, such as children –Ethical exclusion of age, race, gender, etc Informed Consent –All participants, or legal guardians of participants, must sign consent describing purpose of experiment –Include risks and benefits involved –Consent forms must be free of coercion –Participants may remove their consent at any time »http://www.oprs.ucla.edu/human/documents/pdf/19.pdf
Institutional Review Board Privacy and Confidentiality Alternatives to Participation Drugs Research Staff Qualifications Deception and Debriefing –All subjects must be debriefed, especially if deception was used. Debriefing should offer explanations and help that can be sought out »http://www.oprs.ucla.edu/human/documents/pdf/19.pdf
Deception in Research Passive Deception –Withholding information about the study Active Deception –Deliberately misleading the participants
Deception in Research Alternatives to Deception –Role playing –Simulation studies When you can not avoid it –Make sure all risks are included in consent form –Potential results must be worth it –Must debrief participants as soon as possible
Integrity Avoiding Fraud –Replication repeat a research study to validate results –Peer Review critical analysis of research by peers in the same area –Plagiarism taking credit for another’s work or ideas
Examples Stanford Prison Little Albert Milgram http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngB8T5 SKQTAhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngB8T5 SKQTA
Ethics with Animals Benefits of using animals –Same general structure –More control over past and experiment –When experiment calls for irreversible or harmful effects
Ethics with Animals Animal rights then start to be factored in –Why do to them what we wouldn’t even do to ourselves? –All very controversial and one must decide for themselves