Ethics cont. Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology.
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Ethics cont. Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology
Announcements Exam 1 in two days! Review session tonight DeGarmo 18 @ 5:00
Basic courtesy Institutional review board approval Informed consent Avoiding deception Freedom from coercion Protection from harm Debriefing Confidentiality Costs vs. Benefits APA’s code of ethics www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html
Costs/Benefits analysis Costs: all potential risks to the participants Physical harm Psychological harm Loss of confidentiality Benefits: the “good” outcomes Direct benefits to participants Benefits to knowledge base Benefits to world at large
Scientific Integrity Fraud prevention Replication – repeat a research study to validate results Plagiarism – taking credit for another’s work or ideas Avoided by citing the ideas or words of others Peer Review – critical analysis of research by peers in the same area
Ethical responsibility to science Dirty tricks (this will get you thrown out) Questionable tricks (these are a little fuzzier, but be wary) Neat tricks (accepted as okay, and sometimes necessary) Ethics in Science Quiz
Ethical responsibility to science Fabrication of results Reformulating your theory as you go Falsifying credentials Plagiarism Little or no attempt to minimize confounds Deliberately hiding (significant) errors in published work Little or no attempt to minimize demand characteristics DT QT DT QT NT Dirty tricks Questionable tricks Neat tricks Ethics in Science Quiz
Ethical responsibility to science Throwing out data Reorganizing order of report of experiments Violations of underlying statistical assumptions Strategic graphing of the data Duplicate publications (presented as new) Selective reporting of the results Leaving out some bad experiments (not bad results) QT or DT QT NT DT Dirty tricks Questionable tricks Neat tricks depends reason for throwing out Ethics in Science Quiz
Using animals in research Why use animals in research? Same building blocks (e.g., nervous systems) Control Often we can’t control the relevant past experiences of our human subjects, but we can with animals Easier to control certain experimental factors with animals Irreversible and/or harmful effects
Using animals in research Why use animals in research (cont.)? Some unique, special characteristics Simpler systems May allow you to focus on particular variables (IV’s and DV’s), easier to do the experiment without a lot of complex interactions
Using animals in research But animals and humans are different Well, there are strong similarities Evolution - Common ancestry - as a result, things may work in similar ways But, we do need to be aware that there are differences, and always keep that critical eye, think of alternative explanations
Animal ethics: What rights do animals have? If animals are so similar to humans, then should they have similar rights that humans have? Is it unethical to do things to them that we wouldn’t do to ourselves? There is no simple answer, no clear right or wrong. Each individual must decide for themselves.
Next time Exam 1 Coverage Textbook (chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 6), lectures, & labs Scientific method Getting ideas Developing (good) theories Reviewing the literature Psychological Science Ethics Basic methodologies Multiple choice and short answer questions