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Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall6-1 Managing Behavior In Organizations Sixth Edition Jerald Greenberg.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall6-1 Managing Behavior In Organizations Sixth Edition Jerald Greenberg."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall6-1 Managing Behavior In Organizations Sixth Edition Jerald Greenberg

2 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall6-22 Motivating People to Work Chapter Six

3 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-3 Learning Objectives  DEFINE motivation and IDENTIFY its fundamental components  EXPLAIN the motivational-fit approach and what it suggests about how to improve motivation in organizations  EXPLAIN how goals may be set to motivate workers to improve their job performance  DESCRIBE equity theory and explain how it may be applied to motivating people in organizations  DESCRIBE expectancy theory and EXPLAIN what is says about how to motivate people on the job  DISTINGUISH among job enlargement, job enrichment, and the job characteristics model as techniques for motivating employees

4 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-4 Motivation in Organizations Three Good Reasons Why You Should Care About... Motivation in Organizations 1.Managers typically have a variety of opportunities to motivate employees by virtue of how they treat them. 2.The more highly motivated employees are, the more positively they respond in several different ways. 3.Jobs can be designed in ways that enhance employees’ motivation to perform them.

5 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-5 What is Motivation?  Motivation can be defined as the process of arousing, directing, and maintaining behavior toward a goal. –Arousal - the energy behind our actions –Direction - the choice of behavior made –Maintenance - an individual’s willingness to continue to exert effort until a goal is met  Motivation is not the same as performance, but it is an important contributing factor

6 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-6 Three Key Points about Motivation  Motivation and job performance are not synonymous.  Motivation is multifaceted.  People are motivated by more than just money.

7 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-7 What Motivates People to Work?

8 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-8 Motivating by Enhancing Fit  Motivational fit approach - motivation is based on the connection between the qualities of individuals and the requirements of the jobs they perform in their organizations.

9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-9 Motivating Traits and Skills  Two motivational traits are particularly important:  Achievement  Anxiety  The most highly motivated employees have high levels of achievement and low levels of anxiety.

10 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-10 Motivating Traits and Skills  Motivational skills - the particular strategies used when attempting to meet objectives  Emotion control  Motivational control  Employees with high levels of emotional control and high levels of motivational control are more successful.

11 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-11 Motivating Workers – Fit Approach  Fit can be enhanced by:  Prescreening for desired traits and skills  Building motivational skills

12 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-12 Motivating by Setting Goals  Goal setting - striving for, and attaining goals  Goal setting theory - goals motivate for three reasons:  Self-efficacy  Goal commitment  Task performance

13 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-13 Setting Performance Goals  Guideline for setting performance goals: –Goals should be specific –Goals should be difficult  Vertical stretch goals  Horizontal stretch goals –Goals should be attainable –Provide feedback on goal attainment

14 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-14 Equity Theory  Equity theory - people are motivated to maintain fair or equitable relationships between themselves and others, and to avoid those relationships that are unfair, or inequitable.  Focus on: –Outcomes - what they get out of their jobs  Pay, fringe benefits, prestige –Inputs - the contributions they make to their jobs  Time worked, effort exerted, units produced  People make equity judgments by comparing their own outcome/input ratios to the outcome/input ratios of others.

15 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-15 Extreme Responses to Inequities  Getting sick  Going on strike  Stealing from employers  Quitting the job

16 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-16 Managerial Implications  Avoid underpayment  Avoid overpayment  Be open and transparent about pay –Transparency - make information about pay available openly

17 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-17 Expectancy Theory  Expectancy theory claims that people will be motivated to exert effort on the job when they believe that doing so will help them achieve the things they want  Components of motivation: –Expectancy - the belief that one’s effort will affect performance –Instrumentality - the belief that one’s performance will be rewarded; pay-for performance plans are an example of instrumentality –Valence - the perceived value of the expected rewards

18 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-18 Managerial Implications  Expectancy theory suggests that employees can be motivated by  Administering rewards that have positive valence to employees Cafeteria-style benefit plans  Clearly linking valued rewards to performance Pay-for-performance plans Incentive stock option (ISO) plans

19 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-19 Designing Jobs that Motivate  Job design - the process of creating jobs that people are motivated to perform because they are inherently appealing –Job enlargement - giving employees more tasks to perform at the same level  Jobs are changed horizontally –Job enrichment - giving employees a wider variety of tasks that require higher levels of skills and responsibility  Jobs are changed vertically

20 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-20 Job Characteristics Model  The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) identifies how jobs can be designed to help people feel that they are doing meaningful and valuable work.

21 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-21 Basic Elements of JCM  Skill variety is the extent to which a job requires using different skills and talents.  Task identity is the degree to which a job requires doing a whole task from beginning to end.  Task significance is the amount of impact a job is believed to have on others.  Autonomy is the extent to which employees have the freedom and discretion to plan, schedule, and carry out their jobs as desired.  Feedback is the extent to which the job allows people to have information about the effectiveness of their performance.

22 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-22 Other Components of JCM  Experienced meaningfulness of the work  the extent to which a job is considered to be highly important, valuable, and worthwhile  Experienced responsibility  the extent to which employees feel as if they have control over their work efforts  Knowledge of results  the extent to which employees understand how effectively they have performed  Growth need strength - an individual’s need for personal growth and development

23 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 6-23 Designing Jobs to Motivate  The job characteristics model suggests that: –Each person should perform an entire job rather than using several workers, each of whom performs a separate part of the job. –Jobs should be set up so that the person performing a service comes into contact with the recipient of the service. –Jobs should be designed to give employees as much feedback as possible.

24 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall24


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