Presentation on theme: "Schermerhorn - Chapter 141 Core Concepts of Management Schermerhorn Prepared by Cheryl Wyrick California State Polytechnic University Pomona John Wiley."— Presentation transcript:
Schermerhorn - Chapter 141 Core Concepts of Management Schermerhorn Prepared by Cheryl Wyrick California State Polytechnic University Pomona John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Schermerhorn - Chapter 143 Chapter 14 Communication and Interpersonal Skills 4 Planning Ahead –What is the communication process? –How can communication be improved? –How can conflict be be dealt with positively? –How can negotiation be successfully accomplished?
Schermerhorn - Chapter 144 The Communication Process 4 Interpersonal process of sending and receiving symbols with messages attached to them 4 Critical management skill 4 Foundation of effective leadership
Schermerhorn - Chapter 145 The Communication Process 4 Key elements of the communication process: –sender –message –communication channel –receiver –feedback
Schermerhorn - Chapter 146 The Communication Process 4 Effective and Efficient Communication –Effective communication Occurs when the intended message of sender is identical to interpreted meaning of the receiver –Efficient communication Occurs at minimum resource cost –Potential trade-offs between effectiveness and efficiency must be recognized.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 147 The Communication Process 4 Communication Barriers –poor choice of communication channels –poor written or oral expression –semantic problems –failure to recognize nonverbal signals –physical distractions –status effects
Schermerhorn - Chapter 148 The Communication Process 4 Poor choice of channels: –Choose the channel that works best. –Written channels work for messages that: Are simple and easy to convey. Require extensive dissemination quickly. Convey formal policy or authoritative directives. –Oral channels work best for messages that: Are complex or difficult to convey where immediate feedback is needed. Attempt to create a supportive, even inspirational, climate.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 149 The Communication Process 4 Poor written or oral expression: –Semantic barriers occur as: Encoding errors Decoding errors Mixed messages –Managers need to speak and write clearly.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1410 The Communication Process 4 Failures to recognize nonverbal signals: –Mixed messages occur when a person’s words communicate one message while his/her nonverbal signals communicate something else. –The growing use of communication technologies causes important nonverbal communication to be lost.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1411 The Communication Process 4 Physical distractions: –Include interruptions from telephone calls and drop-in visitors. –Can interfere with the effectiveness of a communication attempt. –Can be avoided or at least minimized through proper planning.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1412 The Communication Process 4 Status effects: –Occur when an organization’s hierarchy of authority creates a barrier to effective communication. –Status effects include: Filtering—the intentional distortion of information to make it appear favorable to the recipient. Subordinates acting as “yes men”.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1413 Perception and Communication 4 Perception and Communication –process through which people receive and interpret information from the environment –people can perceive the same things or situations differently
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1414 Perception and Communication 4 Stereotypes –someone identified with a group or category is assumed to have the characteristics of that group or category 4 Halo Effects –one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person or situation
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1415 Perception and Communication 4 Selectivity –tendency to single out those aspects of a person that reinforce one’s existing beliefs values or needs 4 Projection –assignment of personal attributes to other individuals
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1416 Improving Communication 4 Active Listening –listen for message content –listen for feelings –respond to feelings –note all cues –paraphrase and restate
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1417 Improving Communication 4 Constructive Feedback –give feedback directly –should be specific –give when person seems willing to accept it –make sure feedback is valid –give in small doses
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1418 Improving Communication 4 Open Communication Channels –Management by wandering around (MBWA) –360 degree feedback (multi-rater assessment) –proxemics and use of space –technology utilization –valuing culture and diversity
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1419 Communication and Conflict Management 4 Conflict is a disagreement between people on substantive or emotional issues –substantive disagreements about –goals –allocation of resources –distribution of rewards, policies and procedures –job assignments
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1420 Communication and Conflict Management 4 Emotional Conflicts –result from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear, resentment personality clashes
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1421 Communication and Conflict Management 4 Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict –functional (constructive) stimulates people toward greater work efforts –dysfunctional (destructive) very high or very low intensity of conflict
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1422 Communication and Conflict Management 4 Conflict Resolution –appeal to superordinate goals –expending resources available –altering one or more human variables –alter the physical environment –use of integrating devices –changes win reward systems –policies and procedures
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1423 Communication and Conflict Management 4 Conflict Management Styles –people respond to conflict by placing different emphases on cooperativeness assertiveness
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1424 Communication and Conflict Management 4 Conflict Management Styles –Avoidance Uncooperative and unassertive –Accommodation (smoothing) Cooperative and assertive –Competition (authoritative command) Uncooperative and assertive –Compromise Moderately cooperative and assertive –Collaboration (problem solving) Cooperative and assertive
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1425 Communication and Conflict Management 4 Conflict Management Styles –Lose-lose Management by avoidance or accommodation –Win-lose Management by competition and compromise –Win-win Management by collaboration
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1426 Negotiation Approaches 4 Negotiation is the process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1427 Negotiation Approaches 4 Negotiation Goals and Approaches –Substance goals Concerned with outcomes Tied to the “content” issues of negotiation –Relationship goals Concerned with processes Tied to the way people work together –Effective negotiations occur when: Issues of substance are resolved. Working relationships are maintained or improved.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1428 Negotiation Approaches 4 Negotiation Goals and Approaches –Distributive negotiation Focuses on claims made by each party. Leads to win-lose outcomes. –Principled negotiation Also called integrative negotiation Goal is to base the outcome on the merits of individual claims. Leads to win-win outcomes.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1429 Negotiation Approaches 4 Rules for Principled Negotiation –separate people from problem –focus on interests, not positions –generate many alternatives –insist results are based on objective standard
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1430 Communication and Negotiation 4 Avoiding Negotiation Pitfalls –myth of the “fixed pie” –nonrational escalation of conflict –overconfidence –too much “telling”, not enough “hearing”