# A Brief History of Navigation & Cartography Warm-up: Use the world maps and write down the Latitude/Longitude of Norfolk, Virginia.

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A Brief History of Navigation & Cartography

Warm-up: Use the world maps and write down the Latitude/Longitude of Norfolk, Virginia

36.9167° N, 76.2000° W

Typical Graph  This is an example of a typical graph we are all familiar with.  The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points.

Typical Graph  Each point has two values:  The “X” value that runs along the horizontal “X” axis  The “Y” value that runs along the vertical “Y” axis Y axis X axis

Typical Graph *  A point can also have negative (-) values  Negative X values are to the left of the origin (0,0)  Negative Y values are below the origin X Y (-X,+Y) (+X,-Y) (+X,+Y) (-X,-Y) (0,0)

East West, North South on The Earth  Let the X axis be the Equator.  Let the Y axis be the Prime Meridian that runs through Greenwich, England outside of London.  Lat/Long are the 2 grid points by which you can locate any point on earth. Y X

East West, North South on the Earth  Let each of the four quarters then be designated by North or South and East or West. N S EW

East West, North South on the Earth  The N tells us we’re north of the Equator. The S tells us we’re south of the Equator.  The E tells us that we’re east of the Prime Meridian. The W tells us that we’re west of the Prime Meridian. (N, W) (N, E) (S, W) (S, E) STOP! Locate one city in each quadrant on the world map and Write down its latitude and longitude.

East West, North South on the Earth  That means all points in North America will have a North latitude and a West longitude because it is North of the Equator and West of the Prime Meridian. (N, W) Prime Meridian

East West, North South on the Earth  What would be the latitude and longitude directions in Australia? Prime Meridian ? If you said South and East, you’re right!

What is Latitude?  Latitude is the distance from the equator along the Y axis.  All points along the equator have a value of 0 degrees latitude.  North pole = 90°N  South pole = 90°S  Values are expressed in terms of degrees. Y X 90°S 90°N LAT IS FLAT !

What is Latitude?  Each degree of latitude is divided into 60 minutes.  Each minute is divided into 60 seconds. Y X 90°S 90°N This is also true of longitude.

What is Latitude?  For Example:  37°, 02’,51’’N  This is close to the latitude where you live. Y X 90°S 90°N

What is Longitude?  Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis.  All points along the prime meridian have a value of 0 degrees longitude.  The earth is divided into two parts, or hemispheres, of east and west longitude. Y X 180°W 180°E L O N G ITUDE

What is Longitude?  The earth is divided into 360 equal slices (meridians)  180 west and 180 east of the prime meridian Y X 180°W 180°E

What is Latitude?  Our latitude and longitude might be:  37°, 03’,13’’N  76°, 29’, 45’’W Y X 90°S 90°N

So Where is (0,0)?  The origin point (0,0) is where the equator intersects the prime meridian.  (0,0) is off the western coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean.

See If You Can Tell In Which Quarter These Lat/Longs Are Located  1. 41°N, 21°E  2. 37°N, 76°W  3. 72°S, 141°W  4. 7°S, 23°W  5. 15°N, 29°E  6. 34°S, 151°E AB C D

 1. B  2. A  3. C  4. C  5. B  6. D

 See if you can find those same latitude/longitude locations on a map!

Equator Latitude 0 o Latitude: (90 o N to 90 o S) Latitude 23½ o NorthTropic of Cancer Latitude 23½ o South Tropic of Capricorn Longitude 30 o East Longitude 60 o East Longitude 30 o West Longitude 60 o West Positioning on the Earth’s Surface East is the direction of rotation of the Earth North Pole South Pole 23½ o 66½ o 90 o 90 0 21 st June 22 nd December 22 nd Sept 20 th March 30 o E 60 o E90 o E 90 o W 30 o W 60 o W Longitude 90 o East Longitude 90 o West Prime Meridian 0 o Longitude Longitude: (180 o E to 180 o W) Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.

Now you’re ready to find some locations on a map!

Wrapping it up … a look at modern map makers http://www.abc.net.au/btn/story/s3529619.htm

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