Presentation on theme: "Polysyndeton and Asyndeton. Definition of Polysyndeton O Polysyndeton is a stylistic device in which several coordinating conjunctions are used in succession."— Presentation transcript:
Definition of Polysyndeton O Polysyndeton is a stylistic device in which several coordinating conjunctions are used in succession in order to achieve an artistic effect. Polysyndeton examples are found in literature and in day-to-day conversations. O The term polysyndeton comes from a Greek word meaning “bound together”. It makes use of coordinating conjunctions like “and”, “or”, “but” and “nor” (mostly and and or) which are used to join successive words, phrases or clauses in such a way that these conjunctions are even used where they might have been omitted
Examples: O Example #1: “I said, ‘Who killed him?’ and he said ‘I don’t know who killed him, but he’s dead all right,’ and it was dark and there was water standing in the street and no lights or windows broke and boats all up in the town and trees blown down and everything all blown and I got a skiff and went out and found my boat where I had her inside Mango Key and she was right only she was full of water.” (Ernest Hemingway, After the Storm) O Hemingway has used “and” as a polysyndeton in this passage taken from “After the Storm”. Using this literary device, Hemmingway is able to make his readers feel the anxiety that his character is feeling.
O Example #2: “There were frowzy fields, and cow-houses, and dunghills, and dustheaps, and ditches, and gardens, and summer-houses, and carpet-beating grounds, at the very door of the Railway. Little tumuli of oyster shells in the oyster season, and of lobster shells in the lobster season, and of broken crockery and faded cabbage leaves in all seasons, encroached upon its high places.” (Charles Dickens, Dombey and Son) O Charles Dickens is also well-known for his use of polysyndeton along with commas or both the devices. You can see the effects of both the devices in this passage taken from Dombey and Son.
Function of Polysyndeton O Polysyndeton performs several functions. Not only does it join words, phrases and clauses and thus brings continuity in a sentence, but it acts also as a stylistic device, brings rhythm to the text with the repetition of conjunctions in quick succession. It is also employed as a tool to lay emphasis to the ideas the conjunctions connect. repetition of conjunctions in quick succession. It is also employed as a tool to lay emphasis to the ideas the conjunctions connect.
Asyndeton O Asyndeton is derived from a Greek word asyndeton which means unconnected. It is a stylistic device used in literature and poetry to intentionally eliminate conjunctions between the phrases and in the sentence, yet maintain the grammatical accuracy. This literary tool helps in reducing the indirect meaning of the phrase and presents it in a concise form. It started to be seen in Greek and Latin literature.
Types of Asyndeton O Asyndeton examples may be classified into two types One type of asyndeton is used between words, phrases and a sentence. O For example: “Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, Shrunk to this little measure?” (Julius Caesar, Act 3, Scene 1 by William Shakespeare) The second type is used between sentences or clauses. O For example: Without looking, without making a sound, without talking (Oedipus at Colonus by Sophecles)
Examples: O Example #1: IAGO Call up her father. Rouse him. Make after him, Poison his delight, Proclaim him in the streets. Incense her kinsmen, And, though he in a fertile climate dwell, (Othello by William Shakespeare) O In this extract, Shakespeare has eliminated conjunctions deliberately. There is shortage of “and, for, or, but” which are required to join the sentences. Due to this, the words have been emphasized and feelings of anger and jealousy are articulated explicitly.
O Example #2: “This is the villain among you who deceived you, who cheated you, who meant to betray you completely…….” (Rhetoric by Aristotle)Rhetoric by Aristotle) O The word “and” is not featured in the given lines, which could have functioned as a conjunction here. Aristotle believed that asyndeton could be effective if used in the ending of the texts. Here he himself employed this device.
The Difference between Polysyndeton and Asyndeton O. Thomas S. Kane describes the difference between the two devices saying that they are nothing more than the techniques of handling a long series of words or lists. O Polsyndeton slows down the rhythm of speech and makes it moderate whereas asyndeton speeds up the rhythm of the speech.rhythm of speech and makes it moderate whereas asyndeton speeds up the rhythm of the speech.
What Is an Appositive? O It’s a noun or a noun phrase that is placed next to another noun or noun phrase to help identify it. (1) So at the beginning of this episode, I said, “a listener, Mary, raised this topic.” In this sentence, the subject is “a listener.” The name Mary is an appositive.
Essential or Extra? O Appositives can be essential information or extra information. Only appositives that are extra information get commas. The question now is whether the name Mary is essential or extra. The rule for appositives is that if the information is essential, you don’t use commas. If it is extra, you use extra commas. (2) Remember: extra information, extra commas. I’m sorry to tell you, Mary, but your name was not essential; that is why it was surrounded with commas. Of course your name is essential to you, but it’s not essential to that sentence. The sentence was about the fact that a listener—one of many—had a question about appositives. You could leave out the appositive and the sentence would still convey the same thought: “A listener raised this topic.”
Simple Senteces O Definition: O A sentence with only one independent clause (also known as a main clausesentenceindependent clausemain clause O Examples: O "Children are all foreigners." (Ralph Waldo Emerson) O "Mother died today." (Albert Camus, The Stranger, 1942) O "Of course, no man is entirely in his right mind at any time." (Mark Twain, The Mysterious Stranger)
Compound Sentences O Definition: O A sentence that contains at least two independent clauses.sentence independent clauses O Compound sentences can be formed in three ways: (1) using coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet); (2) using the semicolon, either with or without conjunctive adverbs; (3) on occasion, using the colon.coordinating conjunctionssemicolonconjunctive adverbscolon
Examples and Observations: O "They may take our lives, but they will never take our freedom." (Mel Gibson as William Wallace in Braveheart, 1995) "The drought had lasted now for ten million years, and the reign of the terrible lizards had long since ended." (Arthur C. Clarke, 2001: A Space Odyssey, 1968) O "Always go to other people's funerals; otherwise, they won't go to yours." (Yogi Berra)
Complex Sentences O Definition: O A sentence that contains an independent clause and at least one dependent clause.sentenceindependent clausedependent clause O Examples and Observations: O "[I]n the complex sentence John left when his sister arrived, the clause when his sister arrived is a dependent clause because it is preceded by the word when, which is a subordinating conjunction. Dependent clauses are not complete sentences; they cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. For example, *When his sister arrived cannot stand alone. Dependent clauses must be attached to independent clauses in order to form a complete sentence. In the complex sentence above, John left is the independent clause." (Denise E. Murray and Mary Ann Christison, What English Language Teachers Need to Know. Routledge, 2011)dependent clause subordinating conjunctionindependent clauses
Compound Complex Sentences O Definition: O A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clausesentenceindependent clausesdependent clause
Examples and Observations: O "The compound-complex sentence is so named because it shares the characteristics of both compound and complex sentences. Like the compound sentence, the compound- complex has two main clauses. Like the complex sentence, it has at least one subordinate clause. The subordinate clause can be part of an independent clause." (Random House Webster's Pocket Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation, 2007)compound sentencemain clausescomplex sentencesubordinate clause O "The door of the morning room was open as I went through the hall, and I caught a glimpse of Uncle Tom messing about with his collection of old silver." (P.G. Wodehouse, The Code of the Woosters, 1938)