2 Importance of Correct Posture and Body Mechanics In daily activitiesIn sport activitiesIn the activities that sport rehabilitation specialists undertake in treatment sessions
3 posture: the relative alignment of the various body segments with one another
4 good posture: The body’s alignment is balanced so that stress applied to the body segments is minimal.poor posture: The body’s alignment is out of balance, causing unusual stresses to various body segments, which can lead to abnormal anatomical adaptations, alterations in performance, and less efficiency.
5 Correct Standing Alignment: Anterior View Plumb line bisects nose, mouth, sternum, umbilicus, pubic bones.Earlobes are level, as are the shoulders, fingertip ends, nipples, iliac crests, patellae, and medial malleoli.Patellae point straight ahead with feet straight or turned slightly outward.Knees and ankles in line.
6 Correct Standing Alignment: Posterior View Plumb line bisects head and follows spinous processes.Earlobes, shoulders, scapulae, hips, PSIS, gluteal fold, posterior knee creases, medial malleoli are level.(continued)
7 Correct Standing Alignment: Posterior View Scapulae lie against rib cage between T2 and T7, 5 cm from spinous processes.Calcanei are straight; calcaneal tendon is perpendicular to floor.Weight is distributed equally.
8 Correct Standing Alignment: Lateral View Plumb line passes through external auditory meatus, earlobe, bodies of cervical vertebrae, center of shoulder joint, greater trochanter; midway between back and chest; slightly anterior to center of knee just behind patella; slightly anterior to lateral malleolus.(continued)
9 Correct Standing Alignment: Lateral View Horizontal line should connect ASIS and PSISWeight balanced between heel and forefootKnees straight, not lockedChin slightly tucked, chest slightly up and forward, mild inward curve in neck and low back regions
10 Correct Sitting Alignment Feet rest comfortably on floor with hips and knees at 90°.Chair seat does not run into posterior knee; chair back comes to lower scapula border.Chair arms are at a level that provides shoulder relaxation and permits forearms to rest comfortably with elbows at 90°.
11 lordosis: an excessive forward curve in the lumbar or cervical area kyphosis: an excessive posterior curve, often in the thoracic areascoliosis: a lateral curve of the normally straight spine, classified as either a C-curve or an S-curve
12 Pathological Alignment: Pelvis and Lumbar Area LordosisFlat lumbar spineScoliosis
13 Pathological Alignment: Thoracic Area Thoracic kyphosisFlattening of upper backScoliosisLateral shift
14 Pathological Alignment: Head and Cervical Area Forward headCervical lordosis
21 Causes of Muscle Imbalances Read pp 337-338 Sustained shortening of one muscle and compensatory lengthening of opposite muscleOveruse: weakness of one group overpowered by strength of opposing groupPostural deviations with agingJoint abnormalitiesInjuries, muscle strains
22 Treatment of Muscle Imbalances Read pp 337-338 Lengthen shortened muscle groupsStrengthen weak muscle groups.Educate patient on proper posture for conscious correction.Encourage bilateral activities.Conditioning programs include a balanced program.
23 body mechanics: the way the body is positioned and used during activity
24 Body Mechanics Principles Straight or neutral spineStability maintained by a low center of gravity, a broad base of support, and a stance in the direction of force applicationStrong abdominals
25 Body Mechanics During Daily Activities Lifting objectsPushing or pulling objectsCarrying objectsRising from a chairGetting on the floor
26 Body Mechanics in Sport Straight backAbdominal strengthPelvic neutralExamples of specific sports
27 Body Mechanics for Sport Rehabilitation Specialist Equal distribution of weight over the two feetFeet in correct alignment and in direction of forcesForce applied from legsBack straightMove from right to left foot and back againKeep upper extremities relaxed, in proper alignment