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Kinesiology Laboratory 8 Posture and Gait Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "Kinesiology Laboratory 8 Posture and Gait Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kinesiology Laboratory 8 Posture and Gait Analysis

2 ❧ Stand so that the line is slightly anterior to lateral malleoli Lateral Plumb Line

3 ❧ *Plumb line should be equidistant from both feet Anterior/Posterior Plumb Line

4 ❧ Normal Vertical Plumb Line Analysis * **** * Plumb line should be slightly posterior to the center of the hip joint and only slightly anterior to the knee and ankle joint.

5 ❧ Normal Spinal Curvature Posterior concave curves are termed Lordosis Posterior convex curves are termed Kyphosis Flattening or increases in curvature beyond baseline are postural abnormalities that lead to increase stress on joints and surrounding structures.

6 ❧ SubjectHand Dominance (R/L)Higher Shoulder (R/L) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

7 ❧ Knee Genu recurvatum- Plumb line will fall anterior to knee cap Lateral Deviations

8 ❧ Ankle Hyperpronation Supination Posterior/Anterior Deviations

9 ❧ Anterior/Posterior Deviations Knee Vargus Valgus

10 ❧ Hip Different Iliac Crest heights Lateral gluteal fold deviations Spine Lateral deviations (Scoliosis) Scapula Winging Shoulders Different Heights Posterior/Anterior Deviations

11 ❧ Shortened Achilles Tendon due to increased plantar flexion Center of gravity shifted forward Compensation causes Increased lumbar lordosis Stress on knees Changes in Posture: High Heels

12 ❧ Normal Gait

13 ❧ RLA vs Traditional Terminology TraditionalRLA STANCE Heel StrikeInitial Contact Flat FootLoading Response Mid-Stance Heel-OffTerminal Stance Push-Off Toe-OffPre-Swing SWING AccelerationInitial Swing Mid Swing DecelerationTerminal Swing

14 ❧ Ankle: Neutral (isometric contraction of dorsiflexors) Knee: Slight Flexion (eccentric of knee extensors) Hip: 30 degrees Flexion (isometric of hip extensors) Trunk: Rotated to Opposite Side (isometric of erector spinae group) Body weight shifts to stance leg Heel Strike

15 ❧ Ankle: 5-10 degrees of Plantar Flexion (eccentric dorsiflexors) Knee: 15 degrees of Flexion (eccentric quadriceps) Hip: Moving into Extension (isometric extensors) Body weight continues to shift stance foot Flat Foot

16 ❧ Ankle: Dorsiflexion (eccentric plantarflexors) Knee: Extension (no contraction) Hip: Extension (concentric extensors and abductors) Trunk: Neutral Single limb support occurs Highest level of horizontal displacement of center of gravity and vertical displacement of center of gravity Mid-Stance

17 ❧ Ankle: initially dorsiflexion, moving into plantar flexion (for push off) (concentric plantar flexors) Knee: extension (eccentric quads) Hip: Hyperextension (isometric extensors, eccentric hip flexors) Trunk: Rotation to same side Heel Off

18 ❧ Toes: Hyperextension Ankle: Plantar flexion appox. 10-15 degrees (concentric plantar flexors) Knee: Flexion to 30 degrees (eccentric quads) Hip: Moving into Flexion (concentric hip flexors) Toe Off

19 ❧ Ankle: Moves into dorsiflexion (concentric dorsiflexors) Knee: Flexion (eccentric quads) Hip: (concentric flexors) Acceleration

20 ❧ Ankle: Neutral (isometric dorsiflexion) Knee: 60 degrees of Flexion (eccentric quads) Hip: 25 degrees of Flexion (concentric hip flexors) Mid Swing

21 ❧ Ankle: Neutral (isometric dorsiflexors) Knee: Full Extension (eccentric hamstrings) Hip: Flexion (eccentric extensors) Deceleration

22 ❧ Gait Analysis Step length is the distance between the point of initial contact of one foot and the point of initial contact of the opposite foot. In normal gait, right and left step lengths are similar. Stride length is the distance between successive points of initial contact of the same foot. Right and left stride lengths are normally equal. Cadence or walking rate is calculated in steps per minute. Walking base is the sum of the perpendicular distances from the points of initial contact of the right and left feet to the line of forward progression. Foot angle or toe out describes an angle between the line of progression and a line drawn between the midpoints of the calcaneus and the second metatarsal head.

23 ❧ http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=IuEeKzqsfmk &feature=endscreen Trendelenburg Sign Vs Trendelenburg Gait

24 ❧ Final Lab Practical Principles Active and Passive Insufficiency Length-Tension Velocity Tension Force Couples Levers Activity Analysis Squat Baseball Swing (Leading Arm) Push up Sit up Bench Press Military Press Exercise Prescription Lower Extremities In Two Weeks


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