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Kinesiology Laboratory 8

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Presentation on theme: "Kinesiology Laboratory 8"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kinesiology Laboratory 8
Posture and Gait Analysis

2 Lateral Plumb Line Stand so that the line is slightly anterior to lateral malleoli

3 Anterior/Posterior Plumb Line
*Plumb line should be equidistant from both feet

4 Normal Vertical Plumb Line Analysis
* * * Plumb line should be slightly posterior to the center of the hip joint and only slightly anterior to the knee and ankle joint.

5 Normal Spinal Curvature
Posterior concave curves are termed Lordosis Posterior convex curves are termed Kyphosis Flattening or increases in curvature beyond baseline are postural abnormalities that lead to increase stress on joints and surrounding structures.

6 Subject Hand Dominance (R/L) Higher Shoulder (R/L) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

7 Lateral Deviations Knee Genu recurvatum-
Plumb line will fall anterior to knee cap

8 Posterior/Anterior Deviations
Ankle Hyperpronation Supination

9 Anterior/Posterior Deviations
Knee Vargus Valgus

10 Posterior/Anterior Deviations
Hip Different Iliac Crest heights Lateral gluteal fold deviations Spine Lateral deviations (Scoliosis) Scapula Winging Shoulders Different Heights

11 Changes in Posture: High Heels
Shortened Achilles Tendon due to increased plantar flexion Center of gravity shifted forward Compensation causes Increased lumbar lordosis Stress on knees

12 Normal Gait

13 RLA vs Traditional Terminology
STANCE Heel Strike Initial Contact Flat Foot Loading Response Mid-Stance Heel-Off Terminal Stance Push-Off Toe-Off Pre-Swing SWING Acceleration Initial Swing Mid Swing Deceleration Terminal Swing

14 Heel Strike Ankle: Neutral (isometric contraction of dorsiflexors)
Knee: Slight Flexion (eccentric of knee extensors) Hip: 30 degrees Flexion (isometric of hip extensors) Trunk: Rotated to Opposite Side (isometric of erector spinae group) Body weight shifts to stance leg

15 Flat Foot Ankle: 5-10 degrees of Plantar Flexion (eccentric dorsiflexors) Knee: 15 degrees of Flexion (eccentric quadriceps) Hip: Moving into Extension (isometric extensors) Body weight continues to shift stance foot

16 Mid-Stance Ankle: Dorsiflexion (eccentric plantarflexors)
Knee: Extension (no contraction) Hip: Extension (concentric extensors and abductors) Trunk: Neutral Single limb support occurs Highest level of horizontal displacement of center of gravity and vertical displacement of center of gravity

17 Heel Off Ankle: initially dorsiflexion, moving into plantar flexion (for push off) (concentric plantar flexors) Knee: extension (eccentric quads) Hip: Hyperextension (isometric extensors, eccentric hip flexors) Trunk: Rotation to same side

18 Toe Off Toes: Hyperextension
Ankle: Plantar flexion appox degrees (concentric plantar flexors) Knee: Flexion to 30 degrees (eccentric quads) Hip: Moving into Flexion (concentric hip flexors)

19 Acceleration Ankle: Moves into dorsiflexion (concentric dorsiflexors)
Knee: Flexion (eccentric quads) Hip: (concentric flexors)

20 Mid Swing Ankle: Neutral (isometric dorsiflexion)
Knee: 60 degrees of Flexion (eccentric quads) Hip: 25 degrees of Flexion (concentric hip flexors)

21 Deceleration Ankle: Neutral (isometric dorsiflexors)
Knee: Full Extension (eccentric hamstrings) Hip: Flexion (eccentric extensors)

22 Gait Analysis Step length is the distance between the point of initial contact of one foot and the point of initial contact of the opposite foot. In normal gait, right and left step lengths are similar. Stride length is the distance between successive points of initial contact of the same foot. Right and left stride lengths are normally equal. Cadence or walking rate is calculated in steps per minute. Walking base is the sum of the perpendicular distances from the points of initial contact of the right and left feet to the line of forward progression. Foot angle or toe out describes an angle between the line of progression and a line drawn between the midpoints of the calcaneus and the second metatarsal head.

23 Trendelenburg Sign Vs Trendelenburg Gait

24 In Two Weeks Final Lab Practical Principles
Active and Passive Insufficiency Length-Tension Velocity Tension Force Couples Levers Activity Analysis Squat Baseball Swing (Leading Arm) Push up Sit up Bench Press Military Press Exercise Prescription Lower Extremities

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