Coleman Report “[S]chools bring little influence to bear upon a child’s achievement that is independent of his background and general social context.” (Coleman et al., 1966, p. 325)
It is part of the “picture”... but let’s look a picture of achievement...
The Achievement “Lens” Provides a measure of what students know and are able to do relative to the Ohio standards, benchmarks and grade level indicators. Achievement tests are an important measure of the academic learning students have accumulated since birth. Creates a set of criteria for a statewide accountability system.
But Issues Arise When We Connect School Quality only to achievement What part of academic achievement is due to SES and what part is due to the school? Achievement scores alone have problematic diagnostic value A judgment of school quality is flawed if it is based solely on the achievement levels of its students. (see next slide)
Proficiency Bar — 75% passage rate Achievement Levels Grade Levels 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 High SES school Low SES school
The focus of this lens is progress... The School’s Most Important Product...
The Progress “Lens” Uses existing achievement measures to do the analysis. Is a reliable measure of student academic growth from one test to the next, i.e., spring to spring. Has substantial diagnostic value as well as accountability value. Provides data on average progress of students in each subject and grade level. average progress of students at different prior achievement levels. comparisons of progress across curricular areas.
Student Projection1 Student Projection 2 Student Projection 3 Student Projection 4 Student Projection 5 Student Projection 6 Student Projection 7 Student Projection 8 Student Projection 9 Student Projection 10 Student Projection 11 Student Projection 12 Student Projection 13 Student Projection 14 Student Projection 15 Student Projection 16 Student Projection 17 Student Projection 18 Student Projection 19 Student Projection 20 The actual results of other students who have profiles very similar to Student One are used to create a statistical projection of where Student One is likely to be at the end of a given academic year. 4. The profiles of other students with similar performance histories are then used to create statistically reliable projected scores for each student. The Pool
16 Ohio’s Value-Added Measure Measures the contribution of a school or district to the progress of its students on test scores Scores are measured in “Normal Curve Equivalent” gains “0” gain represents the typical or “expected” gain “Value-Added” is based on the 2006 – 07 distribution of scores Scores use a measure of precision (1 Standard Error) to help describe the Value-Added classification
17 There are three classification “bands” using “gain score” and 1 Standard Error + Above expected growth (Green) Met expected growth (“one year of growth in one year of time”) (Yellow) - Below expected growth (Red) Ohio’s Value-Added Measure
Meet ( ) Exceed (+) Meet ( ) Not Meet (- ) Gain Score, Standard Error and Classifications Relative to Value-Added Standard Exceed (+)
How Value-Added Impacts The Ohio School Report Card Scores
Ohio’s Report Card System... Ohio's Accountability Scheme The yearly “Report Card” is Ohio’s way to insure accountability among its schools and communicate this accountability to the public. The Ohio Department of Education (aka, ODE) publishes an annual guide for understanding the Report Card.
Ohio School Performance Designations Schools and school districts “earn” designations from the State of Ohio based on their performance. These designations are: Excellent with Distinction Excellent Effective Continuous Improvement Academic Watch Academic Emergency The School Year Report Card contains the evidence on which these designations are based and includes four components... One of these components is Value Added
State Report Card (component 4 – Value Added...) Value-added results are calculated for schools with grades 4-8 in reading and mathematics. Additionally, a composite is displayed on the front of the report card. The composite impacts the district’s or school’s rating. Results will be displayed using the following symbols: ( + ) A plus symbol indicates that a district or school has achieved more than one year of expected growth in student progress. ( √ ) A check symbol indicates that a district or school has achieved one year of expected growth in student progress. ( - ) A minus symbol indicates that a district or school has achieved less than one year of expected growth in student progress.
State Report Card (component 4 – Value Added - continued...) Consequences: A district or school that achieves, on the composite result, an “Above Expected Growth” for two consecutive years may increase its rating by one category. For instance, a school otherwise rated as Effective may be raised to Excellent if it achieves a “+” designation for two consecutive years. Districts and schools that show “Below Expected Growth” for three consecutive years will have their designation reduced.
Measurement of Learning Types Achievement StatusAchievement Gain Often use Standardized Test Scores Reflect School Quality Both are important to parents, teachers, and community Is the ultimate metric for student post-secondary opportunities Compares year to year performances of unlike cohorts on School Report Card Is significantly related to student family background Simply put, achievement status conveys the degree to which a student or cohort demonstrates performance mastery Much of the foundational research using this form reported discouraging school influence on student achievement Measures the progress students make between two points in time Is largely unrelated to student background factors Though the calculations require involved data structures, capacity, and statistical technology, the concept is straightforward – student progress The more recent research using this metric found the school’s / teacher’s influence to be paramount for facilitating student academic progress A usable gauge for measuring school program effectiveness for anyway that students are grouped
Research Nuggets Teachers matter The difference between having a high and a low quality teacher 3 years in a row is roughly 50 percentile points. Differences within schools are typically greater than differences across schools. Only the most effective teachers - the top 20 per cent – are providing instruction that produces adequate gain in high-achieving students, while students in the lower achievement levels profit from all but the least effective teachers. Having a high quality teacher throughout elementary school can substantially offset or even eliminate the disadvantage of low socio-economic background.
https://ohiova.sas.com/evaas/signin.faces And Finally.... Use the above link to explore school districts and buildings throughout Ohio to view how they performed on the Value-Added standard.