Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment in Europe"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Enlightenment in Europe Chapter 6 Section 2The Enlightenment in Europe
2 Two Views on Government Thomas HobbesEnglish Civil War= All people naturally selfish and wicked= need government to keep order’Leviathan- Sea Monster need strong ruler to keep citizens under control= absolute monarchySocial Contract-the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.
3 Two Views on Government John LockeSaw people as reasonable beings who could look after their own affairs and the welfare of societyCriticized absolute monarchy and favored self-governmentPeople are born free and equal with natural rights of life liberty and propertyGovernment’s job is to protect these rights- If a government fails people have the right to overthrow that government.Power comes from the consent of the people=foundation of modern democracy.
4 The Philosophes Advocate Reason French word for philosophers.Believed people could apply reason to all aspects of life5 core concepts1. Reason2. Nature3. Happiness4. Progress5. LibertyParis was the center of discussion of politics and ideas.
5 Philosophes advocate reason VoltaireFrancois Marie ArouetUsed satire against his opponentsSent to prison twice and exiled to EnglandFought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech.“ I do not agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it.”
6 Philosophes advocate reason MontesquieuBelieved Britain was the best governed and most balanced countrySeparation of powersPhilosophes advocate reasonOn the Spirit of Laws“Power should be a check to power.”Checks and balances
7 Philosophes advocate reason RousseauSon of a poor Swiss watchmaker got fame by writing essaysDisagreed with other Philosophes on a lot of mattersThought civilization corrupted people’s natural goodnessOnly good government is one formed by the people and guided by the “general will”= direct democracyThe Social ContractAgreement among free individuals to create society and governmentAll people are equal and titles should be abolished
8 Philosophes advocate reason BeccariaBelieved laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimesPerson should have a speedy trial, and torture should never be used.Degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime.Didn’t believe in capital punishmentGovt. should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people
9 Women and the Enlightenment Many male Philosophes still had a traditional view of womenMary Astell- A Serious Proposal to the LadiesLack of education for women, and unequal statusMary WollstonecraftA vindication of the Rights of WomenWomen need an education to be virtuous and usefulUrged women to enter male dominated fields like medicine and politics.
10 Which Philosophe /Philosophy do you agree with the most? Why? Which Philosophy has had the biggest impact on your life?