Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Section B The Enlightenment in Europe Enlightenment or Age of Reason Thomas Hobbes – He argued that to escape a blank life, people gave-up their."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 22 Section B The Enlightenment in Europe Enlightenment or Age of Reason Thomas Hobbes – He argued that to escape a blank life, people gave-up their rights to a strong ruler (Social Contract). In exchange, they gained law an order. He believed rulers needed total power to keep citizens under control. He believed that best form of government was an absolute monarchy. He published his views in, Leviathan.
The Enlightenment in Europe John Locke – He believed in the idea of self- government and that people could improve themselves. He believed in three natural rights: Life, Liberty and Property. If government fails to protect these rights, it should be overthrown. His ideas will influence Thomas Jefferson and other Americans
The Enlightenment in Europe The Philosophies Advocate Reason Philosophes – French social critics that believed people could apply reason to ALL aspects of life. Five important concepts formed the core of their philosophy: 1.Reason 2.Nature 3.Happiness 4.Progress 5.Liberty
The Enlightenment in Europe Voltaire – (Francois Marie Arovet) He often used satire against his opponents. He was exiled to England for two years after making enemies in the French Court. He admired the English political system more than Frances’. He fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious beliefs, and freedom of speech. He often ended letters with the phrase, “Crush the evil thing”.
The Enlightenment in Europe Montesquieu – He believed Britain was the best governed country of his day. He believed in the balancing of government. He called this balancing of power – Separation of Powers. He believed in the idea of checks and balances in the power of government.
The Enlightenment in Europe Jean Jacques Rousseau – He argued that civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness. He believed the only good government was one that was freely formed by the people and guided by the “general will” of society or a direct democracy. People give up their freedoms for the common good. He believed that titles of nobility should be abolished.
The Enlightenment in Europe Cesare Bonesana Beccaria – Wrote On Crime and Punishment (1764). He was against torturing of witnesses and suspects, irregular proceedings in trials, and punishments that were arbitrary or cruel. He believed the degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime. He also believed that capital punishment should be abolished.
The Enlightenment in Europe Women and the Enlightenment Mary Astell – Wrote, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies. This book addressed the lack of educational opportunities for women. Mary Wollstonecraft – Published, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). She argued that women like men needed education to become virtuous and useful. She argued for women’s rights to participate in politics. Salons – Social gatherings (arranged by women) to help spread the ideas of the Enlightenment.