2 A revolution in intellectual activity changes Europeans’ view of government and society New Ways of thinkingScientific Revolution spurs reassessment of many prevailing ideasEuropeans seek insight into society during 1600s, 1700sEnlightenment – a movement stressing reason and thought
3 Hobbes’ Social Contract Hobbes distrusts humans, favors strong government to keep orderPromotes the social contract – getting order by giving power to the monarch – writes Leviathan
4 Locke’s Natural Rights Philosopher John Locke says government gets power from the peopleStresses that people have a right to overthrow an unjust government if the government doesn’t uphold their end of the social contractWrote the Social Contract – 180 degree different than Hobbes
5 The Philosophes Advocate Reason Beliefs of the PhilosophesThe philosophes are French social critics in the mid 1700’sValue reason, nature, happiness progress, liberty
6 Five Core Beliefs of the Philisophes ReasonNatureHappinessProgressLiberty
7 Voltaire Combats Intolerance Voltaire – influential philosophe, pen name Francois Marie ArouetPublishes many works arguing for tolerance, reasonMakes powerful enemies and is imprisoned twice for his views
8 Montesquieu and the Separation of Powers Montesquieu – French writer who admires Britain’s government systemFavors separation of powers to keep one body from running governmentThe Persian letters
9 Rousseau: Champion of Freedom Rousseau – philosophe who favors individual freedom, direct democracyViews social contract as an agreement by free people to form government
10 Beccaria Promotes Criminal Justice Italian philosopher Cesare Beccaria works to reform justice systemCalls for speedy trials, greater rights for criminal defendants
11 Women in the Enlightenment Many Enlightenment thinkers take traditional views of women’s roleProminent writer Mary Wollstonecraft urges greater rights for women:Argues women need quality education to be virtuous and usefulUrges women to go into traditionally male professions like politicsSome wealthy women use their status to spread Enlightenment ideas
12 Legacy of the Enlightenment Role of the PhilosophesThe Philosophes are not activists, but inspire major revolutionsBelief in progressScientific breakthroughs show human capacity to improve societyA more Secular OutlookNew knowledge of the world leads people to question religious ideasVoltaire and others criticize beliefs and practices of Christianity
13 Legacy continued Importance of the Individual People place more emphasis on individual rights, abilitiesReason become a central concept for philosophers, rulers
14 Summarize the beliefs of… John LockeThomas HobbesVoltaireMontesquieuRousseauLook at the Bill of Rights (Amendments 1-10) What examples from the Bill of Rights show the beliefs of the above men.
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