Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment in Europe Chapter 6 Section 2. Main Ideas A revolution in intellectual activity changed Europeans’ view of government and society."— Presentation transcript:
Main Ideas A revolution in intellectual activity changed Europeans’ view of government and society. The various freedoms enjoyed in many countries today are a result of Enlightenment thinking.
Introduction New ways of thinking reevaluating old notions New insight into underlying beliefs regarding: Government Religion Economics Education
Enlightenment Enlightenment – intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems. a/k/a Age of Reason Reached its height in the mid- 1700s. Changed many aspects of Western civilization
Two Views on Government Hobbes’ Social Contract Locke’s Natural Rights
Hobbes’ Social Contract Horrors of the English Civil War convinced him that all humans were naturally: Selfish & Wicked Governments keep order Without it constant war People needed to hand over rights to a strong ruler (absolute monarch). They gained law & order, in exchange. Known as social contract.
Locke’s Natural Rights Believed people could learn from experience and improve themselves. Criticized absolute monarchy Favored self-government People are born equal and free, with three natural rights: Life Liberty Property
Natural Rights & Government Purpose of government Protect the people’s rights If government doesn’t do so… Citizens will overthrow it Belief that government comes from people is the foundation of modern democracy.
The Philosophes Advocate Reason Paris became the meeting place to discuss politics and ideas. Philosophes = social critics of this period Apply reason to all aspects of life.
Philosophes’ Five Concepts Five concepts formed the core of their beliefs: Reason – Truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking Nature – Natural was good and reasonable Happiness – Seek well-being on earth Progress – Society could be perfected Liberty – Society can be set free
Voltaire Combats Intolerance Used satire against the clergy, aristocrats & government. Using irony & sarcasm Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief and freedom of speech “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.”
Montesquieu & the Separation of Powers Montesquieu devoted himself to the study of political liberty. Division of power among branches of government = separation of powers Also, developed ideas about checks and balances Both became the basis for the U.S. Constitution
Rousseau: Champion of Freedom Committed to individual freedom Argued civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness. Government should be freely formed by the people and guided by the “general will” of society. Direct Democracy Rousseau’s ideas inspired many of the leaders of the French Revolution who overthrew the monarchy in 1789.
Women and the Enlightenment Philosophes Traditional view toward women Rousseau believed that women should have an education. HOWEVER, he believed they should be educated on how to be a helpful wife & mother. Other men scolded women for reading novels. Wickedness and idleness
Discussion Question What roles are women expected to play in society today? What about men? Have the roles changed a lot?
Status of Women Mary Astell – writer Addressed the lack of educational opportunities for women. Argued for gender equality. “If all men are born free, how is that all women are born slaves?”
Mary Wollstonecraft A Vindication of the Rights of Women Argued women need education to become virtuous and useful. Encouraged women to enter male dominated fields – medicine and politics
Legacy of the Enlightenment Turn to pages 199-200 in your text. Read the paragraphs under Legacy of the Enlightenment. Outline the paragraphs using the following format. I. Main Heading (Topic) A. Important Fact or Main Idea 1. Supporting detail a. Specific detail